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Indirect trophic interactions with an invasive species affect phenotypic divergence in a top consumer.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23463242     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
While phenotypic responses to direct species interactions are well studied, we know little about the consequences of indirect interactions for phenotypic divergence. In this study we used lakes with and without the zebra mussel to investigate effects of indirect trophic interactions on phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic perch. We found a greater phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic individuals in lakes with zebra mussels and propose a mussel-mediated increase in pelagic and benthic resource availability as a major factor underlying this divergence. Lakes with zebra mussels contained higher densities of large plankton taxa and large invertebrates. We suggest that this augmented resource availability improved perch foraging opportunities in both the littoral and pelagic zones. Perch in both habitats could hence express a more specialized foraging morphology, leading to an increased divergence of perch forms in lakes with zebra mussels. As perch do not prey on mussels directly, we conclude that the increased divergence results from indirect interactions with the mussels. Our results hence suggest that species at lower food web levels can indirectly affect phenotypic divergence in species at the top of the food chain.
Authors:
P E Hirsch; P Eklöv; R Svanbäck
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-3-6
Journal Detail:
Title:  Oecologia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1432-1939     ISO Abbreviation:  Oecologia     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-3-6     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0150372     Medline TA:  Oecologia     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Ecology and Genetics/Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, 75236, Uppsala, SE, Sweden, philipp.hirsch@unibas.ch.
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