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Increased squalene concentrations in the clitoral gland during the estrous cycle in rats: an estrus-indicating scent mark?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21924481     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Squalene in the rat clitoral gland is reported to be semi-volatile and may serve as a chemo-signal. The objective was to determine squalene concentrations in the clitoral gland throughout the reproductive cycle. Clitoral glands were extracted with dichloromethane; 23 compounds were identified with Gas Chromatography linked Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Since squalene concentrations were significantly higher during proestrus and estrus, and remarkably reduced during metestrus and diestrus, we inferred that it could be an ovulation-indicating chemosignal in the female rat, acting as a scent mark for the male. This hypothesis was tested by investigating its efficacy to attract males, including studying the role of the olfactory-vomeronasal system of the male in perceiving squalene. For detection of squalene, males used their conventional olfactory system when at a distance from the female, whereas the vomeronasal organ was used when they were in close proximity to the female. We concluded that squalene was a female-specific chemosignal that attracted males, and furthermore, that the olfactory-vomeronasal system had an important role in the perception of squalene.
Authors:
Shanmugam Achiraman; Govindaraju Archunan; Bethunaicken Abirami; Palanivel Kokilavani; Udhayaraj Suriyakalaa; Devaraj Sankarganesh; Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; Soundarapandian Kannan; Yoshiaki Habara; Ramaiyan Sankar
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-9-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Theriogenology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-3231     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-9-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0421510     Medline TA:  Theriogenology     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli -620 024, Tamilnadu, India; Centre for Pheromone Technology, Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli -620 024, Tamilnadu, India.
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