Document Detail


Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12071305     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved in fructan synthesis, the sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (isolated from Jerusalem artichoke), into sugar beet. The transgenic sugar beet showed a dramatic change in the nature of the accumulated sugar, 90% of the sucrose being converted into fructan. The use of transgenic sugar beet for the production and isolation of fructans will result in a more efficient plant production system of fructans and should promote their use in human food. The second example shows how the over-expression of the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis could increase anti-oxidant levels in tomato. Introduction of a highly expressed chalcone isomerase led to a seventyfold increase of the amount of quercetin glucoside, which is a strong anti-oxidant in tomato. We were also able to modify the essential amino acid content of potato in order to increase its nutritional value. The introduction of a feedback insensitive bacterial gene involved in biosynthesis of aspartate family amino acids led to a sixfold increase of the lysine content. Because the use of a bacterial gene could appear to be controversial, we also introduced a mutated form of the plant key enzyme of lysine biosynthesis (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) in potato. This modification led to a 15 times increase of the lysine content of potato. This increase of the essential amino acid lysine influences the nutritional value of potato, which normally has low levels of several essential amino acids. These three examples show how the metabolism of primary constituents of the plant cell such as sugar or amino acids, but also of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, can be modified by genetic engineering. Producing fructan, a soluble fiber, increasing the level of flavonoids, an antioxidant, in tomato or increasing the level of essential amino acids in potato are all clear examples of plant genetic modifications with possible positive effects on human nutrition.
Authors:
Robert Sévenier; Ingrid M van der Meer; Raoul Bino; Andries J Koops
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Volume:  21     ISSN:  0731-5724     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Coll Nutr     Publication Date:  2002 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-06-19     Completed Date:  2003-03-05     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8215879     Medline TA:  J Am Coll Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  199S-204S     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Business Unit Cell Cybernetics, Plant Research International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Crops, Agricultural / genetics*
Genetic Engineering*
Humans
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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