Document Detail

Increased energy intake in pregnant smokers does not prevent human fetal growth retardation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9001365     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A retrospective cohort study of 729 smoking and 610 nonsmoking pregnant women participating in the Prince Edward Island Prenatal Nutritional Counselling Program (1979-1989) was undertaken to study whether lower energy intake results in lower maternal weight gain and/or a higher rate of small-for-gestational-age infants (SGA) among smokers. A second objective was to quantify, using etiological fractions, the independent contributions of cigarette smoking, maternal pregravid underweight and low pregnancy weight gain to the risk of SGA. Measurements of maternal pregravid weight, height, pregnancy weight gain, smoking status, physical activity, energy intake by a series of 3-d food records throughout the duration of pregnancy, and infant birth weight were collected for women with uncomplicated pregnancies resulting in full-term singleton infants. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict the effect of smoking on maternal energy intake, weight gain and infant birth weight. The independent contributions of smoking, pregravid underweight and low pregnancy weight gain to the risk of SGA were determined using logistic regression analysis. Smoking was independently associated with a higher energy intake [+702 kJ/d (+168 kcal/d)] but with lower maternal weight gain (-2.16 kg) and infant birth weight (-205 g). Dietary energy intake was positively associated with only a small increment in birth weight [5.9 g per 418 kJ (100 kcal)]. The etiologic fraction for SGA attributable to smoking was 30.8%, pregravid underweight 16.7%, and low gestational weight gain 15.3%. We conclude that the important negative effect of smoking on retarding fetal growth cannot be adequately mitigated by simply increasing energy intake.
S K Muscati; K G Koski; K Gray-Donald
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  126     ISSN:  0022-3166     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  1996 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-02-07     Completed Date:  1997-02-07     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2984-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Quebec, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Birth Weight
Energy Intake*
Fetal Growth Retardation / etiology*,  prevention & control
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Smoking / adverse effects*
Weight Gain

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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