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Increased daily sodium intake is an independent dietary indicator of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged subjects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21679102     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract Aims. We investigated the association between daily sodium intake and each individual component of the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as the metabolic cluster per se and clarified which of the combinations of MS features is particularly associated with sodium intake. Methods. A total of 716 subjects from our OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis) cohort were selected to fill in a food follow-up diary for a 1-week period. The MS was determined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results. Subjects with the MS used more sodium (P < 0.001), less carbohydrate (P < 0.001), less fibre (P = 0.031), and more alcohol (P < 0.001) than those without the MS. High sodium intake was strongly related to elevated BMI (P = 0.003), waist (P < 0.001), and higher fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). The subjects with the highest sodium intake suffered more often from type 2 diabetes (P = 0.007). Sodium intake was highest in the group where all the MS criteria were present (P < 0.001). High sodium intake was a statistically significant predictor of the MS in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.009). The highest sodium intake was observed in the IDF criteria combination waist + glucose + blood pressure. Conclusions. These findings suggest that a reduction in sodium intake may be especially beneficial in the treatment of individuals with the MS.
Juha Pekka Räisänen; Marja-Leena Silaste; Y Antero Kesäniemi; Olavi Ukkola
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-6-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of medicine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1365-2060     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-6-17     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8906388     Medline TA:  Ann Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, and Clinical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital , Oulu , Finland.
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