Document Detail

Incidence, risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity among very low birth weight infants in Singapore.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15827664     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
INTRODUCTION: To determine the incidence, risk factors and need for surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all VLBW infants managed by the department over 14 years, from 1988 to 2001. Preterm infants were examined according to the Royal College of Ophthalmologists' guidelines, and retinopathy was graded following the International Classification of ROP. All VLBW infants examined for ROP were included and data were retrieved retrospectively and analysed for maternal, medical, obstetric and neonatal risk factors using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 564 VLBW infants who fit the screening criteria, ROP was detected in 165 (29.2%) of VLBW infants; of whom 49% of infants had stage 1 disease, 24% were at stage 2, and 27% were at stage 3 or more. Among 45 infants with stage 3 disease or more, treatment was needed in 62.2% (28/45). No ROP was detected in infants greater than 33 weeks of gestation. Only 0.6 % (1/164) of infants greater than 30 weeks of gestational age (GA) needed surgery for ROP. Using birth weight (BW) criteria, stage 3 ROP was noted only in 1% (6/564) of infants with BW >1000 g. Of all ROP requiring surgery, 89% (25/28) of infants were <1000 g as compared to 11% (3/28) who were >1000 g infants. The median age of onset of ROP was 35 weeks (range, 31 to 41) corrected age. By univariate analysis for threshold ROP, preeclampsia, prenatal betamethasone exposure, gestational age, birth weight, 1-minute Apgar score, hyaline membrane disease (HMD), surfactant usage, hypotension, septicaemia, intraventricular haemorrhage duration of supplemental oxygen, ventilation and chronic lung disease were associated with ROP requiring surgery (i.e., threshold ROP, P <0.05). However, using multiple logistic regression analyses for ROP, maternal preeclampsia [odds ratio (OR), 2.52; confidence interval (CI), 1.32 to 4.7], birth weight (OR, 0.99; CI, 0.996 to 0.999), pulmonary haemorrhage (OR, 4.61; CI, 1.04 to 20.4), duration of ventilation (OR, 1.06; CI, 1.04 to 1.08) and duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (OR, 1.02; CI, 1.01 to 1.04) were factors predictive of development of threshold ROP. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ROP among VLBW infants was 29.2%. ROP was strongly associated with smaller, more immature and sicker infants. The median age of onset of ROP was 35 weeks (range, 31 to 40 weeks) postmenstrual age. Infants <30 weeks of GA and/or infant with BW <1000 g are at considerable risk for threshold ROP. The main risk factors for development of threshold ROP by regression analysis are maternal preeclampsia, birth weight, and presence of pulmonary haemorrhage, duration of ventilation and continuous positive pressure ventilation. We suggest that both immaturity and compromised pulmonary function are both important aetiological factors in the development of ROP. Prevention of prematurity, control of preeclampsia, judicious use of ventilation and oxygen therapy are the only promising factors that may reduce the incidence and severity of ROP in this high-risk infant.
V A Shah; C L Yeo; Y L F Ling; L Y Ho
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore     Volume:  34     ISSN:  0304-4602     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.     Publication Date:  2005 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-04-13     Completed Date:  2005-07-15     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503289     Medline TA:  Ann Acad Med Singapore     Country:  Singapore    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  169-78     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Neonatology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
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MeSH Terms
Gestational Age
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight*
Logistic Models
Lung / physiopathology
Retinopathy of Prematurity / epidemiology*,  physiopathology
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Singapore / epidemiology

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