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Incidence, predictors, and outcomes of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20975574     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: The benefits of dual antiplatelet therapy are counterbalanced by the increased incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) complications. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of GI bleeding, identify the predictors associated with the increased bleeding, and determine the short-term and long-term outcomes.
METHODS: This was an observational, case-control cohort study carried out at the Albert Einstein Medical Center. It included all patients who had a drug-eluting stent implanted between May 2003 and April 2007. A total of 1852 patients were identified; of these 50 patients were readmitted for a GI bleed. A control group of 202 patients who did not have any evidence of GI bleeding were compared with the original group. All data were expressed as mean±SD. The baseline clinical characteristics between the 2 groups were compared using the t test and the Fisher exact test. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the predictors of GI bleeding.
RESULTS: The rate of GI bleeding was 2.7%. The mean age in the group with GI bleeding was 70.9±12.2 years, whereas in the group without GI bleeding it was 66.5±12.8 years (P<0.05). The majority of the patients presented with melena (40%). Gastritis and gastric ulcers were the most common findings seen in 49% of the patients on endoscopy. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a history of GI bleeding was the most important independent predictor of future GI bleeding (P<0.001), whereas the use of statins was found to be protective (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.48; P<0.001) against future GI bleeding. The 30-day mortality rate in the GI bleeding and control groups was 3.7% and 0%, respectively (P<0.01), whereas in the corresponding 1 year the mortality rate was 18.9% and 0%, respectively (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of GI bleeding in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy is low. Earlier history of GI bleeding is the most significant multivariate predictor of future GI bleeding whereas statins seemed to be protective. Patients with GI bleeding have increased short-term and long-term mortality; thereby a history of earlier GI bleeding needs to be assessed carefully before starting dual antiplatelet therapy. This may play a vital role in the selection of therapeutic strategies in these patients.
Authors:
Oluseun Alli; Colin Smith; Micah Hoffman; Steven Amanullah; Philip Katz; Aman M Amanullah
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of clinical gastroenterology     Volume:  45     ISSN:  1539-2031     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Clin. Gastroenterol.     Publication Date:    2011 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-04-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7910017     Medline TA:  J Clin Gastroenterol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  410-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Division of Cardiology and Gastroenterology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA.
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