Document Detail

In vitro studies on radioprotective efficacy of silymarin against γ-irradiation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23078259     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radioprotective properties of silymarin were studied using different assays. Cytotoxicity of silymarin on Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Protective efficacy against γ-radiation was assessed by studying reduction in micronuclei frequency and free radical generation using 2',7'-dichlorodihydroflurescin diacetate (H2DCFDA). Radiation-induced apoptosis was estimated by Annexin V-PI (propidium iodide) analysis and cell cycle analysis. γ-radiation induced changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA damage was estimated employing flow-cytometry and comet assay respectively.
RESULTS: MTT assay and Annexin V-PI studies showed that pre-incubation of HEK cells with silymarin protected them from γ-irradiation. Significant reduction in apoptosis (76.36%) was observed. Silymarin also decreased the percentage of radiation-induced micronuclei (> 69%) (p < 0.05 ). Measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by H2DCFDA revealed a reduction in ROS (21%) at 0.5 h. Cell cycle analysis revealed G1 block in the unirradiated control, which declined in the silymarin pretreated irradiated group (0.5 h). Silymarin treatment resulted in a significant increase in MMP (2 h) against the radiation control. Moreover, the presence of silymarin during irradiation significantly decreased the DNA damage (as measured by comet assay).
CONCLUSIONS: Protection against radiation-induced cell-death and DNA damage by silymarin could be attributed to a reduction in ROS induced by γ-radiation. In vitro experiments on HEK cells explicitly prove that silymarin is a promising, effective and safe radiation countermeasure agent.
Manish Adhikari; Atlar Dhaker; Jawahar Adhikari; Veselin Ivanov; Vijay Singh; Raman Chawla; Raj Kumar; Rakesh Sharma; Yana Karamalakova; Veselina Gadjeva; Rajesh Arora
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2013-01-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of radiation biology     Volume:  89     ISSN:  1362-3095     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Radiat. Biol.     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-03-04     Completed Date:  2013-04-24     Revised Date:  2014-07-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8809243     Medline TA:  Int J Radiat Biol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  200-11     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
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MeSH Terms
Apoptosis / drug effects,  radiation effects
Cell Cycle / drug effects,  radiation effects
Cell Survival / drug effects,  radiation effects
Colony-Forming Units Assay
Comet Assay
DNA Damage
Gamma Rays / adverse effects*
HEK293 Cells
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects,  radiation effects
Micronucleus Tests
Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology*
Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
Silymarin / pharmacology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Radiation-Protective Agents; 0/Reactive Oxygen Species; 0/Silymarin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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