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In vitro studies on radioprotective efficacy of silymarin against γ-irradiation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23078259     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Abstract Purpose: Silymarin has been widely exploited for its hepatoprotective activities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of silymarin against γ-irradiation. Materials and methods: The radioprotective properties of silymarin were studied using different assays. Cytotoxicity of silymarin on Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2II-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Protective efficacy against γ-radiation was assessed by studying reduction in micronuclei frequency and free radical generation using 2',7'-dichlorodihydroflurescin diacetate (H(2)DCFDA). Radiation-induced apoptosis was estimated by Annexin V-PI (Propidium iodide) analysis and cell cycle analysis. γ-radiation induced changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNAdamage were estimated employing flow-cytometry and comet assay respectively. Results: MTT assay and Annexin V-PI studies showed that pre-incubation of HEK cells with silymarin protected them from γ-irradiation. A reduction in apoptosis (76.36%) were observed. Silymarin also decreased the percentage of radiation-induced micronuclei (>69%) (p < 0.05 ). Measurement of intracellular Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by H(2)DCFDA revealed reduction in ROS (21%) at 0.5h. Cell cycle analysis revealed G(1) block in unirradiated control which declined in silymarin pre-treated irradiated group (0.5h). Silymarin treatment results in significant increase in MMP (2h) against radiation control. Moreover presence of silymarin during irradiation significantly decreases the DNA damage as measured by comet assay. Conclusions: Protection against radiation-induced cell-death and DNA damage by silymarin could be attributed to reduction in ROS induced by γ-radiation. In vitro experiments on HEK cells explicitly prove that silymarin is a promising radiation countermeasure agent.
Authors:
Manish Adhikari; Atlar Singh Dhaker; Jawahar Singh Adhikari; Veselin Ivanov; Vijay Singh; Raman Chawla; Raj Kumar; Rakesh Sharma; Yana Karamalakova; Veselina Gadjeva; Rajesh Arora
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of radiation biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1362-3095     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Radiat. Biol.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8809243     Medline TA:  Int J Radiat Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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