Document Detail

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of pyridinium oximes: mode of interaction with acetylcholinesterase, effect on tabun- and soman-poisoned mice and their cytotoxicity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16332406     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The increased concern about terrorist use of nerve agents prompted us to search for new more effective oximes against tabun and soman poisoning. We investigated the interactions of five bispyridinium oximes: K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide], K048 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide], K033 [1,4-bis(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) butane dibromide], TMB-4 [1,3-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and HI-6 [(1-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane dichloride)] with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; E.C. and their effects on tabun- and soman-poisoned mice. All the oximes reversibly inhibited AChE, and the enzyme-oxime dissociation constants were between 17 and 180 microM. Tabun-inhibited AChE was completely reactivated by TMB-4, K027 and K048, with the overall reactivation rate constants of 306, 376 and 673 min(-1)M(-1), respectively. The reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE by K033 reached 50% after 24h, while HI-6 failed to reactivate any AChE at all. Soman-inhibited AChE was resistant to reactivation by 1mM oximes. All studied oximes protected AChE from phosphorylation with both soman and tabun. In vivo experiments showed that the studied oximes were relatively toxic to mice; K033 was the most toxic (LD50=33.4 mg/kg), while K027 was the least toxic (LD50=672.8 mg/kg). The best antidotal efficacy was obtained with K048, K027 and TMB-4 for tabun poisoning, and HI-6 for soman poisoning. Moreover, all tested oximes showed no cytotoxic effect on several cell lines in concentrations up to 0.8mM. The potency of the oximes K048 and K027 to protect mice from five-fold LD50 of tabun and their low toxicity make these compounds leading in the therapy of tabun poisoning. The combination of HI-6 and atropine is the therapy of choice for soman poisoning.
Maja Calić; Ana Lucić Vrdoljak; Bozica Radić; Dubravko Jelić; Daniel Jun; Kamil Kuca; Zrinka Kovarik
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Publication Detail:
Type:  In Vitro; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2005-12-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicology     Volume:  219     ISSN:  0300-483X     ISO Abbreviation:  Toxicology     Publication Date:  2006 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-01-23     Completed Date:  2006-03-09     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0361055     Medline TA:  Toxicology     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  85-96     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c. 2, P.O. Box 291, HR-10001 Zagreb, Croatia.
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MeSH Terms
Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism*
Cell Line
Cell Survival / drug effects
Chemical Warfare Agents / poisoning*
Cholinesterase Inhibitors / poisoning*
Cholinesterase Reactivators / pharmacology*,  therapeutic use
Erythrocytes / drug effects,  enzymology
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Oximes / chemical synthesis*,  pharmacology*,  therapeutic use
Phosphoric Acid Esters / antagonists & inhibitors*,  poisoning*
Pyridinium Compounds / chemical synthesis*,  pharmacology*,  therapeutic use
Soman / antagonists & inhibitors*,  poisoning*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/1,4-bis(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)butane; 0/1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide; 0/1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)butane; 0/Chemical Warfare Agents; 0/Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0/Cholinesterase Reactivators; 0/Oximes; 0/Phosphoric Acid Esters; 0/Pyridinium Compounds; 77-81-6/tabun; 96-64-0/Soman; EC

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