Document Detail

In situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament and its bundles in response to anterior tibial loads.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9167633     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The anterior cruciate ligament has a complex fiber anatomy and is not considered to be a uniform structure. Current anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions succeed in stabilizing the knee, but they neither fully restore normal knee kinematics nor reproduce normal ligament function. To improve the outcome of the reconstruction, it may be necessary to reproduce the complex function of the intact anterior cruciate ligament in the replacement graft. We examined the in situ forces in nine human anterior cruciate ligaments as well as the force distribution between the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ligament in response to applied anterior tibial loads ranging from 22 to 110 N at knee flexion angles of 0-90 degrees. The analysis was performed using a robotic manipulator in conjunction with a universal force-moment sensor. The in situ forces were determined with no device attached to the ligament, while the knee was permitted to move freely in response to the applied loads. We found that the in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament ranged from 12.8 +/- 7.3 N under 22 N of anterior tibial load applied at 90 degrees of knee flexion to 110.6 +/- 14.8 N under 110 N of applied load at 15 degrees of flexion. The magnitude of the in situ force in the posterolateral bundle was larger than that in the anteromedial bundle at knee flexion angles between 0 and 45 degrees, reaching a maximum of 75.2 +/- 18.3 N at 15 degrees of knee flexion under an anterior tibial load of 110 N. The magnitude of the in situ force in the posterolateral bundle was significantly affected by knee flexion angle and anterior tibial load in a fashion remarkably similar to that seen in the anterior cruciate ligament. The magnitude of the in situ force in the anteromedial bundle, in contrast, remained relatively constant, not changing with flexion angle. Significant differences in the direction of the in situ force between the anteromedial bundle and the posterolateral bundle were found only at flexion angles of 0 and 60 degrees and only under applied anterior tibial loads greater than 66 N. We have demonstrated the nonuniformity of the anterior cruciate ligament under unconstrained anterior tibial loads. Our data further suggest that in order for the anterior cruciate ligament replacement graft to reproduce the in situ forces of the normal anterior cruciate ligament, reconstruction techniques should take into account the role of the posterolateral bundle in addition to that of the anteromedial bundle.
M Sakane; R J Fox; S L Woo; G A Livesay; G Li; F H Fu
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society     Volume:  15     ISSN:  0736-0266     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Orthop. Res.     Publication Date:  1997 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-06-23     Completed Date:  1997-06-23     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8404726     Medline TA:  J Orthop Res     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  285-93     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Aged, 80 and over
Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiology*
Knee Joint / physiology
Middle Aged
Stress, Mechanical
Tibia / physiology*
Grant Support

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