Document Detail

Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin. Changes during a 12-year period.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8175088     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Changes in the content of impurities, adulterants and diluents are described for 383 samples of illicit heroin seized in the western part of Denmark during the 12-year period 1981 through 1992. A wide range in purity was found within each year, whereas the average purity did not vary much from one year to another. The average purity of wholesale samples (45%) was only slightly higher than the purity of retail samples (36%). The SW Asian type of heroin, containing high concentrations of noscapine, predominated from the mid-eighties. Heroin base and heroin hydrochloride each accounted for approximately half of the samples during the eighties. However, in recent years the base form has become predominant. During the early eighties caffeine and procaine were the most frequent additives next to sugars. During the middle and late eighties an increasing number of heroin samples were cut with phenobarbital and methaqualone. During the early nineties the occurrence of phenobarbital and methaqualone has decreased, whereas paracetamol in combination with caffeine has become predominant. Re-analyses of samples which had been kept in storage for several years showed that most samples had not changed after being stored in the dark for a couple of years at room temperature. However, storage for more than 5 years often resulted in decomposition, particularly in samples consisting of the SW Asian type of heroin.
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Forensic science international     Volume:  64     ISSN:  0379-0738     ISO Abbreviation:  Forensic Sci. Int.     Publication Date:  1994 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1994-06-06     Completed Date:  1994-06-06     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7902034     Medline TA:  Forensic Sci Int     Country:  IRELAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  171-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Risskov, Denmark.
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MeSH Terms
Acetaminophen / analysis
Caffeine / analysis
Carbohydrates / analysis
Drug Contamination*
Heroin / analysis*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lactose / analysis
Morphine / analysis
Noscapine / analysis
Papaverine / analysis
Phenobarbital / analysis
Procaine / analysis
Street Drugs / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carbohydrates; 0/Street Drugs; 103-90-2/Acetaminophen; 128-62-1/Noscapine; 50-06-6/Phenobarbital; 561-27-3/Heroin; 57-27-2/Morphine; 58-08-2/Caffeine; 58-74-2/Papaverine; 59-46-1/Procaine; 63-42-3/Lactose

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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