Document Detail

The Impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. Part II: A total diet study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16237603     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In Asembagus (East Java, Indonesia), surface water is contaminated with effluent from the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. In a previous study, we reported that food crops irrigated with this water had increased concentrations of various elements. Here, we present a total diet study for adults and 6-year-old children to determine if the mean daily intake of a broad range of elements is safe and adequate. For children, the intake of B, Mg, Mn and V is high with Hazard Quotients (HQ) of 1.1 (B), 1.4 (Mn) and 1.4 (V), respectively (no TDI is available for Mg). For Mn, the daily intake is high due to the consumption of locally produced rice. Drinking water is the main source of B, Mg and V. For adults, the intake of Mg, Mn and V is also high but HQ values are < or =0.7. For both children and adults, the intake of Ca, Zn and particularly Fe is below the RNI (Fe intake is 90% below the RNI for women). It is concluded the mean intake of elements is unbalanced and Fe deficiency is probably the most serious health problem. Toxic effects cannot be fully excluded since deficiency of essential elements such as Ca, Fe and Zn can increase the absorption and retention of various elements.
Alex Heikens; Budi Widianarko; Inge C Dewi; Jan L M de Boer; Willem Seinen; Kees van Leeuwen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental geochemistry and health     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0269-4042     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ Geochem Health     Publication Date:  2005 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-10-20     Completed Date:  2006-07-21     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8903118     Medline TA:  Environ Geochem Health     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  475-83     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, PO Box 80176, 3508 Utrecht, TD, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Environmental Monitoring / standards,  statistics & numerical data*
Food Analysis / methods,  statistics & numerical data*
Mass Spectrometry
Metals, Heavy / analysis*
Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
Water Supply / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Metals, Heavy; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical

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