Document Detail


Impact of different sports and training on cardiac structure and function.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9276165     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
There is overwhelming evidence, particularly from echocardiography, that the heart of competitive athletes may differ from that of nonathletes, matched for age, gender, and body size. A larger left ventricular mass has been shown in athletes performing predominantly dynamic aerobic and anaerobic sports, in athletes engaged in static training, and in players of ball sports. Enlargement of the left ventricular internal diameter was most pronounced and reached about 10% in athletes performing predominantly dynamic sports; mainly strength training athletes had a lesser increase of the internal dimension, which was limited to 2.5%. Also the left ventricular wall appeared to be thickened in all types of athletes compared with controls. In sports with high dynamic and low static demands, wall thickness was proportionate or slightly disproportionate to the size of the internal diameter so that relative wall thickness was not different from controls or slightly increased (predominantly eccentric hypertrophy). In strength athletes, the disproportionate increase of wall thickness averaged about 12% (predominantly concentric hypertrophy). In sports with high dynamic and high static demands and requiring prolonged training, such as cycling, the increases of absolute and relative wall thickness reached 29% and 19% and were more pronounced than in runners (mixed hypertrophy). A plausible interpretation of these results is that the development of so-called eccentric or concentric left ventricular hypertrophy according to the type of sports cannot be regarded as an absolute or dichotomous concept because training regimens and sports activities are not exclusively dynamic or static and because the load on the heart is not purely of the volume or the pressure type. Most studies agree that left ventricular systolic and diastolic function is normal in the athlete at rest, whereas diastolic function seems to be enhanced in the exercising endurance athlete. The consistency of the results of studies on athletes in the competitive and the resting season, of training of sedentary subjects, and of spinal cord-injured patients suggests that variations in physical activity can alter left ventricular structure; genetic factors do not seem to be involved in the size of the left ventricular internal diameter but have to be taken into account to interpret wall thickness.
Authors:
R H Fagard
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Cardiology clinics     Volume:  15     ISSN:  0733-8651     ISO Abbreviation:  Cardiol Clin     Publication Date:  1997 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-10-09     Completed Date:  1997-10-09     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8300331     Medline TA:  Cardiol Clin     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  397-412     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), Belgium.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adaptation, Physiological
Adult
Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
Exercise / physiology*
Female
Humans
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology,  physiopathology*
Male
Physical Endurance / physiology
Sports / physiology*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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