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Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23159729     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 10, or 100mg/kg of naphthenic acids, and sampled after 5 or 21d. Half of the fish from the 21d exposure were co-exposed to inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida (A.s.) to induce an immune response. A positive control experiment was conducted using an intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene, a known immune suppressing compound. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and myeloid cells were counted in blood and lymphatic tissue using flow cytometry. In the 5d exposure, there was a reduction in blood leucocytes and spleen thrombocytes at the 100mg/kg dose. However, at 21d, leucocyte populations showed no effects of exposure with the exception that spleen thrombocyte populations increase at the 100mg/kg dose. In the 21d exposure, B- and T-lymphocytes in blood showed a significant Dose×A.s. interaction, indicating stimulated blood cell proliferation due to naphthenic acids alone as well as due to A.s. Naphthenic acid injections did not result in elevated bile fluorescent metabolites or elevated hepatic EROD activity. In contrast to naphthenic acids exposures, as similar dose of benzo[a]pyrene caused a significant decrease in B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in blood and relative B-lymphocyte counts in spleen. Results suggest that the naphthenic acids may act via a generally toxic mechanism rather than by specific toxic effects on immune cells.
Gillian Z Macdonald; Natacha S Hogan; Bernd Köllner; Karen L Thorpe; Laura J Phalen; Brian D Wagner; Michael R van den Heuvel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)     Volume:  126C     ISSN:  1879-1514     ISO Abbreviation:  Aquat. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8500246     Medline TA:  Aquat Toxicol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  95-103     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada.
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