Document Detail

Immunomodulatory molecules in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri: evidence from conditioned media.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18768139     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The supernatant from cultures of haemocytes of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri incubated with zymosan (conditioned medium; CM) can enhance yeast phagocytosis by Botryllus blood cells. It contains molecules recognised by antibodies raised against the mammalian pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1-alpha and TNF-alpha which appear as a single band of 60 kDa in immunoblot analysis. The effects on phagocytosis are abolished by the presence of sugars, such as galactose and rhamnose, sharing the same hydroxyl group configuration at C2 and C4. The same sugars also inhibit the haemagglutinating activity of the CM, suggesting the presence of lectins with opsonic activity. With immunoblot analysis, we confirmed the presence, in CM, of B. schlosseri rhamnose-binding lectins (BsRBLs), recently identified and characterised by our team, as a single electrophoretic band of 37 kDa. We had already demonstrated that these molecules are synthesised and secreted by activated phagocytes. Since previous studies have demonstrated that cytotoxic morula cells, and not phagocytes, are the haemocytes responsible for the release of molecules recognised by anti-cytokine antibodies, we propose a new scenario in which morula cells act as sentinels, able to sense foreign molecules and release immunomodulatory factors which induce phagocytes to secrete lectins able to enhance phagocytosis by acting as bridges between foreign particles and phagocyte surfaces.
Adams Menin; Loriano Ballarin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-08-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of invertebrate pathology     Volume:  99     ISSN:  1096-0805     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Invertebr. Pathol.     Publication Date:  2008 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-11-05     Completed Date:  2009-02-06     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0014067     Medline TA:  J Invertebr Pathol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  275-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Trieste 75, 35121 Padova, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Culture Media, Conditioned / chemistry,  metabolism*,  pharmacology
Erythrocytes / drug effects,  physiology
Hemagglutination / drug effects,  physiology
Hemocytes / cytology,  drug effects,  immunology
Immunologic Factors / chemistry,  metabolism*
Phagocytosis / drug effects,  physiology
Urochordata / cytology,  immunology*,  metabolism
Zymosan / pharmacology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Culture Media, Conditioned; 0/Immunologic Factors; 9010-72-4/Zymosan

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