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Immunological responses of the mangrove oysters Crassostrea gasar naturally infected by Perkinsus sp. in the Mamanguape Estuary, Paraíba State (Northeastern, Brazil).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23664909     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Perkinsus genus includes protozoan parasites of marine mollusks, especially bivalves. In the last four years, this parasite has been detected in mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. gasar from the Northeastern region of Brazil. Hemocytes are the key cells of the oyster immune system, being responsible for a variety of cellular and humoral reactions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation and the release of several effector molecules that control the invasion and proliferation of microorganisms. In Brazil, there is little information on perkinsosis and none on the immune responses of native oysters' species against Perkinsus spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of natural infection by Perkinsus sp. on the immunological parameters of mangrove oysters C. gasar cultured in the Mamanguape River Estuary (Paraíba, Brazil). Adults oysters (N = 40 / month) were sampled in December 2011, March, May, August and October 2012. Gills were removed and used to determine the presence and intensity of the Perkinsus sp. infection, according to a scale of four levels (1 to 4), using the Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium assay. Immunological parameters were measured in hemolymph samples by flow cytometry, including: Total Hemocyte Count (THC), Differential Hemocyte Count (DHC), cell mortality, phagocytic capacity, and production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The plasma was used to determine the hemagglutination activity. The results showed the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. with the highest mean prevalence (93.3%) seen so far in oyster populations in Brazil. Despite that, no oyster mortality was associated. In contrast, we observed an increase in hemocyte mortality and a suppression of two of the main defense mechanisms, phagocytosis and ROS production in infected oysters. The increase in the percentage of blast-like cells on the hemolymph, and the increase in THC in oysters heavily infected (at the maximum intensity, 4) suggest an induction of hemocytes proliferation. The immunological parameters varied over the studied months, which may be attributed to the dynamics of infection by Perkinsus sp. The results of the present study demonstrate that Perkinsus sp. has a deleterious effect on C. gasar immune system, mainly in high intensities, which likely renders oysters more susceptible to other pathogens and diseases.
Authors:
Fernando Ramos Queiroga; Luis Fernando Marques-Santos; Hélène Hégaret; Philippe Soudant; Natanael Dantas Farias; Aline Daiane Schlindwein; Patricia Mirella da Silva
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-5-8
Journal Detail:
Title:  Fish & shellfish immunology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1095-9947     ISO Abbreviation:  Fish Shellfish Immunol.     Publication Date:  2013 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-5-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9505220     Medline TA:  Fish Shellfish Immunol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Paraíba - Campus I, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB, Brasil.
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