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Immunological programming by breast milk creates an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23110822     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Breast milk provides important maturational stimuli to an infant's developing immune system. However, data concerning the role of breast-feeding in reducing the risk of allergic disease remain contradictory. Previous studies have centred on comparative analyses of breast milk and formula compositions. We chose a slightly different angle, whereby we focused on the effects of the chosen diet on the infant himself, comparing the immune development of formula-fed and breast-fed children. The objective of the present study was to determine how the mode of feeding affects infant immunology. Altogether, eighteen formula-fed infants with limited breast-feeding for < 3 months and twenty-nine infants who were exclusively breast-fed for >3 months were included in the study. Concentrations of interferon γ, TNF-α IL-10, IL-5, IL-4 and IL-2 were measured simultaneously from the same serum sample through use of a multiplexed flow cytometric assay at the ages of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) was measured using ELISA at the same time points. Serum TNF-α and IL-2 concentrations were significantly higher in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants during the first year of life (ANOVA, P = 0·002). The serum concentrations of TGF-β were significantly lower in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants throughout the first year of life (ANOVA, P ≤ 0·0001). Exclusive breast-feeding promotes an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu, which is maintained throughout infancy. Such an immunological environment limits hyper-responsiveness and promotes tolerisation, possibly prohibiting the onset of allergic disease.
Authors:
Essi Kainonen; Samuli Rautava; Erika Isolauri
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  The British journal of nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1475-2662     ISO Abbreviation:  Br. J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372547     Medline TA:  Br J Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-9     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, Turku 20520, Finland.
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