Document Detail


Immunological mechanisms for desensitization and tolerance in food allergy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22821087     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Food allergy is a major public health concern in westernized countries, estimated to affect 5 % of children and 3-4 % of adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergy is currently being actively evaluated, but is still experimental. The optimal protocol, in terms of the route of administration of the food, target maintenance dose, and duration of maintenance therapy, and the optimal patient for these procedures are still being worked out. The mechanisms underlying successful food desensitization are also unclear, in part, because there is no standard immunotherapy protocol. The mechanisms involved, however, may include mast cell and basophil suppression, development of food-specific IgG4 antibodies, reduction in the food-specific IgE/IgG4 ratio, up-regulation and expansion of natural or inducible regulatory T cells, a skewing from a Th2 to a Th1 profile, and the development of anergy and/or deletion in antigen-specific cells. Additional studies are required to elucidate and understand these mechanisms by which desensitization and tolerance are achieved, which may reveal valuable biomarkers for evaluating and following food allergic patients on immunotherapy.
Authors:
Rima Rachid; Dale T Umetsu
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2012-07-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Seminars in immunopathology     Volume:  34     ISSN:  1863-2300     ISO Abbreviation:  Semin Immunopathol     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-09-07     Completed Date:  2013-01-15     Revised Date:  2013-09-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101308769     Medline TA:  Semin Immunopathol     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  689-702     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Karp Laboratories, Division of Immunology and Allergy, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Allergens / immunology*,  therapeutic use*
Animals
Desensitization, Immunologic / methods*
Food Hypersensitivity / immunology*,  therapy*
Humans
Immunoglobulin G / immunology
T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology,  pathology
Th1 Cells / immunology,  pathology
Th2 Cells / immunology,  pathology
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R21 AI083523/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R21 AI087951/AI/NIAID NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Allergens; 0/Immunoglobulin G
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