Document Detail

Immunoendocrine mechanisms associated with resistance or susceptibility to parasitic diseases during pregnancy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19212131     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
During pregnancy, the mammalian endocrine system plays a leading role in maintaining the fetus, characterized by an increase in the level of hormones such as progesterone, oestradiol and some gonadotropic hormones. The immune system participates during pregnancy by self-regulating to prevent fetus rejection. The distinctive type of immunity during gestation is characterized by an increase in levels of Th2 type cytokines IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10, concomitant with a decrease in IL-2, INF-gamma and TNF-alpha levels. Along pregnancy, sex steroids and factors associated with them regulate the immune response. In this way, endocrine and immunologic factors have an impact on the pregnant female's susceptibility or resistance to parasitic diseases. There are three main mechanisms proposed to explain this susceptibility or resistance: (1) sex steroids influence the host's immune system; (2) hormones acting directly on the parasites inhibit or promote their reproduction, or (3) the two effects can occur simultaneously within a network of immuno-endocrine host-parasite interactions, mediated by hormones, cytokines, antibodies and other factors interacting directly and bidirectionally. The present work reviews recent literature concerning the most frequent parasitic infections during pregnancy and discusses the mechanisms implied in the establishment, growth, reproduction or elimination of the parasite.
José Antonio Vargas-Villavicencio; Marco A De León-Nava; Jorge Morales-Montor
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2009-02-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neuroimmunomodulation     Volume:  16     ISSN:  1423-0216     ISO Abbreviation:  Neuroimmunomodulation     Publication Date:  2009  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-02-12     Completed Date:  2009-06-19     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422763     Medline TA:  Neuroimmunomodulation     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  114-21     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
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MeSH Terms
Antibody Formation
Cytokines / physiology*
Disease Susceptibility
Endometrium / immunology
Fetus / immunology
Gene Expression Regulation
Gonadal Steroid Hormones / physiology
Hormones / physiology*
Host-Parasite Interactions / immunology,  physiology*
Immunity, Cellular
Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
Mammals / immunology,  physiology
Models, Immunological
Parasitemia / immunology,  physiopathology
Parasitic Diseases / immunology,  physiopathology*
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / immunology,  parasitology*,  physiopathology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cytokines; 0/Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0/Hormones

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