Document Detail

Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts with keratins in the stratum corneum of human skin.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11800593     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
As part of a program to develop methods for diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents, we developed immunochemical methods for detection of adducts of sulfur mustard to keratin in human skin. Three partial sequences of keratins containing glutamine or asparagine adducted with a 2-hydroxyethylthioethyl group at the omega-amide function were synthesized and used as antigens for raising antibodies. After immunization, monoclonal antibodies were obtained with affinity for keratin isolated from human callus exposed to 50 microM sulfur mustard. These antibodies showed binding to the stratum corneum of human skin exposed to low levels of sulfur mustard, as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy. This approach opens the way for development of a detection kit that can be applied directly to the skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of immunochemical detection of adduct formation of toxic chemicals with skin proteins. A similar approach can be followed for skin exposure to environmental pollutants.
Govert P van der Schans; Daan Noort; Roos H Mars-Groenendijk; Alex Fidder; Lai F Chau; Leo P A de Jong; Hendrik P Benschop
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemical research in toxicology     Volume:  15     ISSN:  0893-228X     ISO Abbreviation:  Chem. Res. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2002 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-01-21     Completed Date:  2002-03-22     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8807448     Medline TA:  Chem Res Toxicol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  21-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory, P.O. Box 45, 2280 AA Rijswijk, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
Antibody Specificity
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Epidermis / drug effects,  metabolism*
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
Haptens / immunology,  metabolism
Keratins / immunology,  metabolism*
Microscopy, Fluorescence
Mustard Gas / metabolism*,  pharmacology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Haptens; 505-60-2/Mustard Gas; 68238-35-7/Keratins

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