Document Detail

Immersion and branchial/transcutaneous irrigation anaesthesia with alfaxalone in a Mexican axolotl.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21988819     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
INTRODUCTION: Immersion anaesthetic techniques are commonly used in amphibian species. Alfaxalone has been reported as an immersion anaesthetic in fish but not amphibians.
CASE HISTORY AND EXAMINATION: A Mexican 56 g axolotl was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia. Anaesthesia was required for the surgical retrieval of two gastric foreign bodies. Prior to anaesthesia, on visual inspection the axolotl was bright and active. Branchial and gular respiratory movements occurred at approximately 24 respirations minute(-1) and heart rate was approximately 52 beats minute(-1) .
MANAGEMENT: The axolotl was exposed to increasing concentrations (up to 5 mg L(-1) ) of alfaxalone (Alfaxan; Vetóquinol, UK) in a water bath. After becoming sedated the axolotl was removed from the water bath. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with alfaxalone (5 mg L(-1) ) via continuous irrigation of the gills (branchial) and skin (cutaneous) with additional 30 μL drops of alfaxalone (10 mg mL(-1) ) administered branchially as required. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to remove two gastric foreign bodies. Branchial and gular respiratory movements persisted at what was considered an appropriate anaesthetic depth. Anaesthetic depth could be rapidly deepened by branchial irrigation of alfaxalone solutions and lightened by irrigation using fresh water. Anaesthesia lasted approximately 1 hour and recovery was rapid (within 15 minutes). Recovery was assisted through branchial and cutaneous irrigation with fresh water.
FOLLOW-UP: No obvious adverse effects of anaesthesia were observed immediately post-anaesthesia or, according to the owner, in the following week. Conclusions  Axolotls can be anaesthetized using alfaxalone administered via immersion and branchial/transcutaneous irrigation offering an alternative technique for anaesthetising axolotls for clinical and research purposes.
Matthew W McMillan; Elizabeth A Leece
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Case Reports; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  38     ISSN:  1467-2995     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-10-12     Completed Date:  2012-05-24     Revised Date:  2013-07-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  619-23     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Ambystoma mexicanum / surgery*
Anesthesia, General / methods,  veterinary*
Foreign Bodies / surgery,  veterinary*
Stomach / surgery*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anesthetics; 0/Pregnanediones; BD07M97B2A/alphaxalone

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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