Document Detail

Identification of a precursor genomic segment that provided a sequence unique to glycophorin B and E genes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8346238     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Human glycophorin A, B, and E (GPA, GPB, and GPE) genes belong to a gene family located at the long arm of chromosome 4. These three genes are homologous from the 5'-flanking sequence to the Alu sequence, which is 1 kb downstream from the exon encoding the transmembrane domain. Analysis of the Alu sequence and flanking direct repeat sequences suggested that the GPA gene most closely resembles the ancestral gene, whereas the GPB and GPE genes arose by homologous recombination within the Alu sequence, acquiring 3' sequences from an unrelated precursor genomic segment. Here we describe the identification of this putative precursor genomic segment. A human genomic library was screened by using the sequence of the 3' region of the GPB gene as a probe. The genomic clones isolated were found to contain an Alu sequence that appeared to be involved in the recombination. Downstream from the Alu sequence, the nucleotide sequence of the precursor genomic segment is almost identical to that of the GPB or GPE gene. In contrast, the upstream sequence of the genomic segment differs entirely from that of the GPA, GPB, and GPE genes. Conservation of the direct repeats flanking the Alu sequence of the genomic segment strongly suggests that the sequence of this genomic segment has been maintained during evolution. This identified genomic segment was found to reside downstream from the GPA gene by both gene mapping and in situ chromosomal localization. The precursor genomic segment was also identified in the orangutan genome, which is known to lack GPB and GPE genes. These results indicate that one of the duplicated ancestral glycophorin genes acquired a unique 3' sequence by unequal crossing-over through its Alu sequence and the further downstream Alu sequence present in the duplicated gene. Further duplication and divergence of this gene yielded the GPB and GPE genes.
M Onda; S Kudo; A Rearden; M G Mattei; M Fukuda
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  90     ISSN:  0027-8424     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  1993 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-09-07     Completed Date:  1993-09-07     Revised Date:  2010-09-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  7220-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, CA 92037.
Data Bank Information
Bank Name/Acc. No.:
GENBANK/L18750;  L18751
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MeSH Terms
Base Sequence
Chromosome Mapping
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4
Cloning, Molecular
Glycophorin / genetics*
In Situ Hybridization
Molecular Sequence Data
Multigene Family*
Recombination, Genetic
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Restriction Mapping
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

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