Document Detail

Identification and connections of inspiratory premotor neurons in songbirds and budgerigar.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9518266     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Recordings of extracellular unit activity in the ventrolateral medulla and of electromyographic activity in either the M. scalenus, a principal inspiratory muscle, or the abdominal expiratory muscles, were used to identify inspiratory related (IR) neurons. IR neurons extended from levels caudal to the obex through the caudal level of the descending vestibular nucleus. This distribution was found to correspond to that of a subset of cells retrogradely labeled from injections of neuronal tracers into the upper thoracic spinal cord, where motoneurons innervating the M. scalenus were located by retrograde transport. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine at the recording sites resulted in projections to the spinal cord and brainstem. Bulbospinal axons traveled in the lateral funiculus, predominantly contralaterally, and terminated in relation to the dendrites and cell bodies of motoneurons innervating the M. scalenus. Brainstem nuclei receiving projections from injections at IR loci included the retroambigualis, tracheosyringeal motor nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus of the rostral medulla, infraolivaris superior, ventrolateral parabrachial nucleus, and the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex. In the finches, there were also bilateral projections to nucleus uvaeformis of the posterior thalamus. The spinal and brainstem projections are similar to those found in pigeon (Reinke and Wild, [1997] J. Comp. Neurol. 379:347-362), and probably mediate the intricate coordination of the vocal (syringeal) and respiratory systems for the control of vocalization. The distribution of IR neurons in birds is similar to that of the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) in mammals.
H Reinke; J M Wild
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of comparative neurology     Volume:  391     ISSN:  0021-9967     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Comp. Neurol.     Publication Date:  1998 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-03-26     Completed Date:  1998-03-26     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0406041     Medline TA:  J Comp Neurol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  147-63     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
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MeSH Terms
Birds / physiology*
Columbidae / physiology*
Medulla Oblongata / cytology,  physiology*
Motor Neurons / physiology*
Neural Pathways / physiology
Respiratory Mechanics / physiology*
Vocalization, Animal / physiology*

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