Document Detail

Identification of the bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) in plants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15010537     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Stringent control mediated by the bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) is a key regulatory process governing bacterial gene expression. By devising a system to measure ppGpp in plants, we have been able to identify ppGpp in the chloroplasts of plant cells. Levels of ppGpp increased markedly when plants were subjected to such biotic and abiotic stresses as wounding, heat shock, high salinity, acidity, heavy metal, drought, and UV irradiation. Abrupt changes from light to dark also caused a substantial elevation in ppGpp levels. In vitro, chloroplast RNA polymerase activity was inhibited in the presence of ppGpp, demonstrating the existence of a bacteria-type stringent response in plants. Elevation of ppGpp levels was elicited also by treatment with plant hormones jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and ethylene, but these effects were blocked completely by another plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid. On the basis of these findings, we propose that ppGpp plays a critical role in systemic plant signaling in response to environmental stresses, contributing to the adaptation of plants to environmental changes.
Kosaku Takahashi; Koji Kasai; Kozo Ochi
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2004-03-09
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  101     ISSN:  0027-8424     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2004 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-03-25     Completed Date:  2004-05-10     Revised Date:  2013-06-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  4320-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Chloroplasts / enzymology,  metabolism*
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / antagonists & inhibitors,  metabolism
Guanosine Tetraphosphate / analysis*,  biosynthesis
Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
Plants / chemistry*,  metabolism
Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Plant Growth Regulators; 33503-72-9/Guanosine Tetraphosphate; EC RNA Polymerases

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