Document Detail

Identification of prenatal amphetamines exposure by maternal interview and meconium toxicology in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19935364     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The Infant Development Environment and Lifestyle study is investigating the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MAMP) exposure on infant and child development; potential concurrent exposure to cannabis and tobacco also are evaluated. Maternal self-reported drug use and/or meconium toxicology results defined drug exposure status. It is unclear how the frequency, duration, and magnitude of maternal MAMP exposure affect qualitative and quantitative meconium results. Interviews regarding maternal drug use were collected shortly after birth; meconium specimens were screened for amphetamines, cannabis, and cotinine by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The majority of MAMP- and cannabis-exposed infants were identified by maternal interview alone. Meconium tests were more likely to be positive if the mother reported MAMP and cannabis use, particularly in the third trimester. Less than half of immunoassay-positive amphetamines (31.0%) and cannabis (17.9%) meconium results were confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Tobacco exposure was equally detected by immunoassay cotinine screening and maternal report. Meconium concentrations did not correlate with maternal self-report status or trimester of use or frequency or route of MAMP use. Maternal self-report was more sensitive than meconium testing for identifying MAMP and cannabis-exposed neonates; however, the timing of drug exposure may influence meconium toxicology results. Most women stopped MAMP and cannabis use before the third trimester. In the first trimester, meconium has not yet formed, and based on our recent results for opiates and cocaine, drug use in the second trimester appears to be poorly reflected in meconium. Low confirmation rates in meconium reinforce the need for confirmatory testing following positive screening results and additional research to identify alternative biomarkers.
Teresa R Gray; Linda L LaGasse; Lynne M Smith; Chris Derauf; Penny Grant; Rizwan Shah; Amelia M Arria; Sheri A Della Grotta; Arthur Strauss; William F Haning; Barry M Lester; Marilyn A Huestis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Therapeutic drug monitoring     Volume:  31     ISSN:  1536-3694     ISO Abbreviation:  Ther Drug Monit     Publication Date:  2009 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-11-25     Completed Date:  2010-03-19     Revised Date:  2013-05-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7909660     Medline TA:  Ther Drug Monit     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  769-75     Citation Subset:  IM    
Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Amphetamines* / analysis
Cannabinoids / analysis
Cotinine / analysis
Infant, Newborn
Interviews as Topic
Marijuana Smoking
Maternal Exposure*
Meconium / chemistry*
Neurotoxins* / analysis
Pregnancy Trimesters
Self Disclosure*
Sensitivity and Specificity
Substance Abuse Detection / methods*
Young Adult
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amphetamines; 0/Cannabinoids; 0/Neurotoxins; 486-56-6/Cotinine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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