Document Detail


Identification of an Arabidopsis fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase required for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamates in root waxes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22797656     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
While suberin is an insoluble heteropolymer, a number of soluble lipids can be extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots. These extracts include esters of saturated long-chain primary alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Such fatty alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids are also present in suberin. We demonstrate that alkyl coumarates and caffeates, which are the major components of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root waxes, are present primarily in taproots. Previously we identified ALIPHATIC SUBERIN FERULOYL TRANSFERASE (At5g41040), a HXXXD-type acyltransferase (BAHD family), responsible for incorporation of ferulate into aliphatic suberin of Arabidopsis. However, aliphatic suberin feruloyl transferase mutants were unaffected in alkyl hydroxycinnamate ester root wax composition. Here we identify a closely related gene, At5g63560, responsible for the synthesis of a subset of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters, the alkyl caffeates. Transgenic plants harboring P(At5g63560)::YFP fusions showed transcriptional activity in suberized tissues. Knockout mutants of At5g63560 were severely reduced in their alkyl caffeate but not alkyl coumarate content. Recombinant At5g63560p had greater acyltransferase activity when presented with caffeoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrate, thus we have named this acyltransferase FATTY ALCOHOL:CAFFEOYL-CoA CAFFEOYL TRANSFERASE. Stress experiments revealed elevated alkyl coumarate content in root waxes of NaCl-treated wild-type and fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-CoA caffeoyl transferase plants. We further demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-CoA REDUCTASEs (FARs) FAR5 (At3g44550), FAR4 (At3g44540), and FAR1 (At5g22500) are required for the synthesis of C18, C20, and C22 alkyl hydroxycinnamates, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple acyltransferases are utilized for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters of Arabidopsis root waxes and that FAR1/4/5 provide the fatty alcohols required for alkyl hydroxycinnamate synthesis.
Authors:
Dylan K Kosma; Isabel Molina; John B Ohlrogge; Mike Pollard
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2012-07-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Plant physiology     Volume:  160     ISSN:  1532-2548     ISO Abbreviation:  Plant Physiol.     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-09-04     Completed Date:  2013-01-10     Revised Date:  2013-07-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401224     Medline TA:  Plant Physiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  237-48     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. dkosma@msu.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Acetyltransferases / chemistry*,  genetics
Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics,  metabolism
Arabidopsis / chemistry*,  enzymology,  genetics
Arabidopsis Proteins / chemistry,  genetics
Coumaric Acids / chemistry
Enzyme Activation
Esters / chemistry
Fatty Alcohols / chemistry
Gene Knockout Techniques
Lipids / chemistry
Plant Roots / chemistry*,  genetics
Plants, Genetically Modified / chemistry,  enzymology,  genetics
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Recombinant Proteins / chemistry,  genetics
Seeds / chemistry,  enzymology,  genetics
Sodium Chloride / pharmacology
Stress, Physiological
Substrate Specificity
Transcriptional Activation
Waxes / chemistry*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Arabidopsis Proteins; 0/Coumaric Acids; 0/Esters; 0/Fatty Alcohols; 0/Lipids; 0/Recombinant Proteins; 0/Waxes; 7647-14-5/Sodium Chloride; 8072-95-5/suberin; EC 1.2.-/Aldehyde Oxidoreductases; EC 1.2.1.42/hexadecanal dehydrogenase (acylating); EC 2.3.1.-/Acetyltransferases
Comments/Corrections

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