Document Detail

Hypotaurine, N-methyltaurine, taurine, and glycine betaine as dominant osmolytes of vestimentiferan tubeworms from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11073799     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Organic osmolytes, solutes that regulate cell volume, occur at high levels in marine invertebrates. These are mostly free amino acids such as taurine, which are "compatible" with cell macromolecules, and methylamines such as trimethylamine oxide, which may have a nonosmotic role as a protein stabilizer, and which is higher in many deep-sea animals. To better understand nonosmotic roles of osmolytes, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to analyze vestimentiferans (vestimentum tissue) from unusual marine habitats. Species from deep hydrothermal vents were Riftia pachyptila of the East Pacific Rise (2,636 m) and Ridgeia piscesae of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (2,200 m). Species from cold hydrocarbon seeps were Lamellibrachia sp. and an unnamed escarpid species from subtidal sediment seeps (540 m) off Louisiana and Lamellibrachia barhami from bathyal tectonic seeps (1,800-2,000 m) off Oregon. Riftia were dominated by hypotaurine (152 mmol/kg wet wt), an antioxidant, and an unidentified solute with an NMR spectrum consistent with a methylamine. Ridgeia were dominated by betaine (N-trimethylglycine; 109 mmol/kg), hypotaurine (64 mmol/kg), and taurine (61 mmol/kg). The escarpids were dominated by taurine (138 mmol/kg) and hypotaurine (69 mmol/kg). Both Lamellibrachia populations were dominated by N-methyltaurine (209-252 mmol/kg), not previously reported as a major osmolyte, which may be involved in methane and sulfate metabolism. Trunk and plume tissue of the Oregon Lamellibrachia were nearly identical to vestimentum in osmolyte composition. The methylamines may also stabilize proteins against pressure; they were significantly higher in the three deeper-dwelling groups.
M Yin; H R Palmer; A L Fyfe-Johnson; J J Bedford; R A Smith; P H Yancey
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ     Volume:  73     ISSN:  1522-2152     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Biochem. Zool.     Publication Date:    2000 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-01-02     Completed Date:  2001-01-18     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100883369     Medline TA:  Physiol Biochem Zool     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  629-37     Citation Subset:  IM    
Chemistry Department, Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, New York 10708, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Annelida / physiology*
Betaine / metabolism
Hydrocarbons / metabolism
Marine Biology
Taurine / analogs & derivatives*,  metabolism
Water-Electrolyte Balance / physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antioxidants; 0/Hydrocarbons; 107-35-7/Taurine; 107-43-7/Betaine; 300-84-5/hypotaurine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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