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Hyperosmolarity and hypoxia induce chondrogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells in a collagen type 2 hydrogel.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21916017     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Apart from soluble growth factors, various other biophysicochemical cues are known to promote chondrogenesis. Under physiological conditions, cartilage in the joint comprises a hyperosmotic and hypoxic environment. Therefore, in this study, we examined the inductive effects of hyperosmotic and/or hypoxic conditions on adipose stem cells (ASCs) and compared them with conventional TGFβ1-induction. After encapsulation in collagen type II hydrogels and specific induction, ASCs were assessed for viability, proliferation, morphology and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Viability was similar under all conditions, with low proliferative activity. After 4 days, hypoxia and/or hyperosmolarity did not affect round cell morphology, while cells were mainly stretched in the TGFβ1-induced group. At 21 days, the TGFß1-treated group had aggregated into a cell nodule. Hyperosmolarity mimicked this aggregation to a lesser extent, whereas cells under hypoxia stretched out after 21 days, with a combined effect in the hypoxic/hyperosmotic group. Both individual and combined hyperosmotic and/or hypoxic conditions significantly upregulated SOX5, SOX9, COMP and Link-p gene expression compared with the non-induced group, and to similar levels as the TGFβ1-induced group. GAG synthesis in both hydrogel and medium was increased under hypoxic conditions, whereas hyperosmolarity decreased GAG formation in the hydrogels, but increased GAG formation in the medium. We conclude that in a joint mimicking the three-dimensional (3D) micro-environment, a combination of hyperosmolarity and hypoxia is able to induce chondrogenesis to the same extent as TGFβ1. This might lead to an interesting alternative when considering short-term triggering in a one-step surgical procedure for the treatment of cartilaginous defects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wouter J F M Jurgens; Zufu Lu; Behrouz Zandieh-Doulabi; Dirk J Kuik; Marco J P F Ritt; Marco N Helder
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-9-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1932-7005     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-9-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101308490     Medline TA:  J Tissue Eng Regen Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Research Institute MOVE/Skeletal Tissue Engineering Group Amsterdam (STEGA), The Netherlands.
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