Document Detail

Human testicular insulin-like factor 3: in relation to development, reproductive hormones and andrological disorders.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20550598     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Knockout of the gene encoding insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) results in cryptorchidism in mice due to disruption of the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. This finding was essential for understanding the complete course of testis descensus, and wound up years of speculations regarding the endocrine regulation of this process. INSL3 is, along with testosterone, a major secretory product of testicular Leydig cells. In addition to its crucial function in testicular descent, INSL3 is suggested to play a paracrine role in germ cell survival and an endocrine role in bone metabolism. INSL3 is produced in human prenatal and neonatal, and in adult Leydig cells to various extents, and is in a developmental context regulated like testosterone, with production during second trimester, an early postnatal peak and increasing secretion during puberty, resulting in high adult serum levels. INSL3 production is entirely dependent on the state of Leydig cell differentiation, and is stimulated by the long-term trophic effects mediated by luteinizing hormone (LH). Once differentiated, Leydig cells apparently express INSL3 in a constitutive manner, and the hormone is thereby insensitive to the acute, steroidogenic effects of LH, which for example is an important factor in the regulation of testosterone. Clinically, serum INSL3 levels can turn out to be a usable tool to monitor basal Leydig cell function in patients with various disorders affecting Leydig cell function. According to animal studies, foetal INSL3 production is, directly or indirectly, sensitive to oestrogenic or anti-androgenic compounds. This provides important insight into the mechanism by which maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters can result in cryptorchidism in the next generation. Conclusively, INSL3 is an interesting testicular hormone with potential clinical value as a marker for Leydig cell function. It should be considered on a par with testosterone in the evaluation of testicular function and the consequences of Leydig cell dysfunction.
K Bay; A-M Andersson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of andrology     Volume:  34     ISSN:  1365-2605     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Androl.     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-03-17     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8000141     Medline TA:  Int J Androl     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  97-109     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.
University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
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