Document Detail

Human exposures to monomers resulting from consumer contact with polymers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11397392     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Many consumer products are composed completely, or in part, of polymeric materials. Direct or indirect human contact results in potential exposures to monomers as a result of migrations of trace amounts from the polymeric matrix into foods, into the skin or other bodily surfaces. Typically, residual monomer levels in these polymers are <100 p.p.m., and represent exposures well below those observable in traditional toxicity testing. These product applications thus require alternative methods for evaluating health risks relating to monomer exposures. A typical approach includes: (a) assessment of potential human contacts for specific polymer uses; (b) utilization of data from toxicity testing of pure monomers, e.g. cancer bioassay results; and (c) mathematical risk assessment methods. Exposure potentials are measured in one of two analytical procedures: (1) migration of monomer from polymer into a simulant solvent (e.g. alcohol, acidic water, vegetable oil) appropriate for the intended use of the product (e.g. beer cans, food jars, packaging adhesive, dairy hose); or (2) total monomer content of the polymer, providing worse-case values for migratable monomer. Application of toxicity data typically involves NOEL or benchmark values for non-cancer endpoints, or tumorigenicity potencies for monomers demonstrated to be carcinogens. Risk assessments provide exposure 'safety margin' ratios between levels that: (1) are projected to be safe according to toxicity information, and (2) are potential monomer exposures posed by the intended use of the consumer product. This paper includes an example of a health risk assessment for a chewing gum polymer for which exposures to trace levels of butadiene monomer occur.
A P Leber
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemico-biological interactions     Volume:  135-136     ISSN:  0009-2797     ISO Abbreviation:  Chem. Biol. Interact.     Publication Date:  2001 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-06-08     Completed Date:  2001-12-04     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0227276     Medline TA:  Chem Biol Interact     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  215-20     Citation Subset:  IM    
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 1485 East Archwood Avenue, Akron, OH 44306, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Butadienes / analysis,  toxicity
Chewing Gum / analysis,  toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Health
Food Contamination / analysis
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Polymers / chemistry,  toxicity*
Risk Assessment
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Butadienes; 0/Chewing Gum; 0/Polymers; 106-99-0/1,3-butadiene

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