Document Detail

Human exposures to immobilising agents: results of an online survey.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20802186     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Cases of human exposure to veterinary injectable anaesthetics were reviewed following a literature search and completion of an online questionnaire in an attempt to provide an objective approach to the problem. The modified Glasgow Coma Scale was used to rank cases according to their severity. From the cases examined, results showed that intoxication with potent opioids, such as etorphine, carfentanil and thiafentanil, need to be treated with antagonists such as naloxone, nalmefene or naltrexone, and not with antagonists with agonistic properties, such as diprenorphine. With regard to the alpha(2)-agonists xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine and romifidine, no antagonist is currently accredited for human use. Atipamezole, a specific alpha(2)-antagonist, is widely used in veterinary medicine and has been used experimentally to reverse dexmetomidine in a study in human medicine. The high concentrations of alpha(2)-agonists being used in zoo and wildlife medicine warrant the accreditation of atipamezole for use in cases of human exposure. Knowledge and availability of the appropriate antagonist are essential in cases of human intoxication with injectable anaesthetics. Preventive measures, such as wearing gloves and eye protection, need to be used more regularly to reduce the risk of exposure.
A Haymerle; A Fahlman; C Walzer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Veterinary record     Volume:  167     ISSN:  2042-7670     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet. Rec.     Publication Date:  2010 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-30     Completed Date:  2010-11-03     Revised Date:  2012-05-10    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0031164     Medline TA:  Vet Rec     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  327-32     Citation Subset:  IM    
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, A-1160 Vienna, Austria.
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MeSH Terms
Anesthetics / antagonists & inhibitors,  poisoning*
Animals, Wild
Animals, Zoo
Injections / veterinary
Occupational Exposure* / prevention & control
Protective Clothing / veterinary
Veterinary Medicine*
Reg. No./Substance:

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