Document Detail


Human exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in Ghana: Temporal variation, sources of exposure and estimation of daily intakes by infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21470682     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was evaluated in Ghana using breast milk samples collected in 2004 and 2009. Mean levels and ranges of PBDEs (4.5; 0.86-18ng/g lw) and PCBs (62; 15-160ng/g lw) observed in the present study were unexpectedly high, in spite of the fact that Ghana is a non-industrialized country when compared with many of the Asian and European countries. Significant increases were found in the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs over the years, while no significant increase was observed for HBCDs. Estimated hazard quotient (HQ) showed that all the mothers had HQ values exceeding the threshold of 1 for PCBs, indicating potential health risk for their children. PCBs in dirty oils and obsolete equipment should be of concern as potential sources in Ghana, and e-waste recycling with little or no experience in safe handling could be a threat to this sub-region noted for unregulated disposal of e-waste. The results may point towards an increase in trends in human milk in Ghana, especially in the larger cities but further analysis would be required to confirm this upward trend in levels. This is the first study to report BFRs in human breast milk from Africa, and undoubtedly from Ghana.
Authors:
Kwadwo Ansong Asante; Sam Adu-Kumi; Kenta Nakahiro; Shin Takahashi; Tomohiko Isobe; Agus Sudaryanto; Gnanasekaran Devanathan; Edith Clarke; Osmund Duodu Ansa-Asare; Stephen Dapaah-Siakwan; Shinsuke Tanabe
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-4-4
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environment international     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-6750     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-4-7     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7807270     Medline TA:  Environ Int     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Water Research Institute, P. O. Box AH 38, Achimota, Accra, Ghana.
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