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How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23374020     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits.
Kalliope E Stournaras; Eugenia Lo; Katrin Böhning-Gaese; Eliana Cazetta; D Matthias Dehling; Matthias Schleuning; Mary Caswell Stoddard; Michael J Donoghue; Richard O Prum; H Martin Schaefer
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-2-4
Journal Detail:
Title:  The New phytologist     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-8137     ISO Abbreviation:  New Phytol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-2-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9882884     Medline TA:  New Phytol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Animal Ecology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 1, 79104, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, PO Box 208105, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
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