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How Large Is the Typical Subarachnoid Hemorrhage? A Review of Current Neurosurgical Knowledge.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22099565     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Despite the morbidity and mortality of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the average volume of a typical hemorrhage is not well defined. Animal models of SAH often do not accurately mimic the human disease process. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to estimate the average SAH volume, allowing standardization of animal models of the disease. METHODS: We performed a MEDLINE search of SAH volume and erythrocyte counts in human cerebrospinal fluid as well as for volumes of blood used in animal injection models of SAH, from 1956 to 2010. We polled members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) for estimates of typical SAH volume. Using quantitative data from the literature, we calculated the total volume of SAH as equal to the volume of blood clotted in basal cisterns plus the volume of dispersed blood in cerebrospinal fluid. The results of the AANS poll confirmed our estimates. RESULTS: The human literature yielded 322 publications and animal literature, 237 studies. Four quantitative human studies reported blood clot volumes ranging from 0.2 to 170 mL, with a mean of ∼20 mL. There was only one quantitative study reporting cerebrospinal fluid red blood cell counts from serial lumbar puncture after SAH. Dispersed blood volume ranged from 2.9 to 45.9 mL, and we used the mean of 15 mL for our calculation. Therefore, total volume of SAH equals 35 mL. The AANS poll yielded 176 responses, ranging from 2 to 350 mL, with a mean of 33.9 ± 4.4 mL. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our estimate of total SAH volume of 35 mL, animal injection models may now become standardized for more accurate portrayal of the human disease process.
Robert G Whitmore; Ryan A Grant; Peter Leroux; Omar El-Falaki; Sherman C Stein
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-11-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  World neurosurgery     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1878-8750     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101528275     Medline TA:  World Neurosurg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
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