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Host Sialoglycans and Bacterial Sialidases: A Mucosal Perspective.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22519819     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Sialic acids are nine-carbon-backbone sugars that occupy outermost positions on vertebrate cells and secreted sialoglycoproteins. These negatively charged hydrophilic carbohydrates have a variety of biological, biophysical, and immunological functions. Mucosal surfaces and secretions of the mouth, airway, gut, and vagina are especially sialoglycan-rich. Given their prominent positions and important functions, a variety of microbial strategies have targeted host sialic acids for adherence, mimicry, and/or degradation. Here we review the roles of bacterial sialidases (neuraminidases) during colonization and pathogenesis of mammalian mucosal surfaces. Evidence is presented to support the myriad roles of mucosal sialoglycans in protecting the host from bacterial infection. In opposition, many bacteria hydrolyze sialic acids during associations with the gastrointestinal, oral, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. Sialidases promote bacterial survival in mucosal niche environments in several ways, including: 1) nutritional benefits of sialic acid catabolism, 2) unmasking of cryptic host ligands used for adherence, 3) participation in biofilm formation, and 4) modulation of immune function. Bacterial sialidases are among the best-studied enzymes involved in pathogenesis and may also drive commensal and/or symbiotic host associations. Future studies should continue to define host substrates of bacterial sialidases and the mechanisms of their pathologic, commensal, and symbiotic interactions with the mammalian host. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Amanda L Lewis; Warren G Lewis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-4-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Cellular microbiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1462-5822     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-4-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100883691     Medline TA:  Cell Microbiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Departments of Molecular Microbiology and MedicineWashington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
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