Document Detail

Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20362044     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.
Man Kee Lam; Keat Teong Lee; Abdul Rahman Mohamed
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2010-03-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biotechnology advances     Volume:  28     ISSN:  1873-1899     ISO Abbreviation:  Biotechnol. Adv.     Publication Date:    2010 Jul-Aug
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-17     Completed Date:  2010-08-12     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8403708     Medline TA:  Biotechnol Adv     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  500-18     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
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MeSH Terms
Bacteria / chemistry,  metabolism
Bacterial Proteins / chemistry,  metabolism
Enzymes, Immobilized / chemistry,  metabolism
Fatty Acids / chemistry*,  metabolism
Food Industry
Industrial Waste*
Plant Oils / chemistry*,  metabolism
Trans Fatty Acids / chemical synthesis,  chemistry*,  metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bacterial Proteins; 0/Biofuels; 0/Enzymes, Immobilized; 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Industrial Waste; 0/Plant Oils; 0/Trans Fatty Acids

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