Document Detail


Historical perspective on agroterrorism: lessons learned from 1945 to 2012.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23971803     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
This article presents a historical perspective on agroterrorism cases from 1945 until 2012. The threat groups and perpetrators associated with bio- and agroterrorism are clustered into several groups: apocalyptic sects, lone wolves, political groups, and religious groups. We used open-source information, and 4 biological agroterrorism cases are described: (1) in 1952, Mau Mau poisoned cattle in Kenya by using a plant toxin from the African milk bush plant; (2) in 1985, the USDA claimed that Mexican contract workers were involved in deliberately spreading screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) among livestock; (3) in 2000, Palestinian media reported that Israeli settlers released sewer water into Palestinian agricultural fields; and (4) in 2011, a person was sentenced to prison after threatening US and UK livestock with the deliberate spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus. All 4 cases can be assigned to political groups. These cases have not attracted much attention in literature nor in the public media, and the credibility of the sources of information varies. We concluded that agroterrorism has not been a problem during the period studied. Lessons learned from the few cases have generated awareness about the fact that nontypical biological weapons and non-high-risk agents, such as African milk bush, screwworm, and sewer water, have been used by attackers to influence local decision makers. This review will be useful in improving future preparedness planning and developing countermeasures.
Authors:
Haralampos Keremidis; Bernd Appel; Andrea Menrath; Katharina Tomuzia; Magnus Normark; Roger Roffey; Rickard Knutsson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biosecurity and bioterrorism : biodefense strategy, practice, and science     Volume:  11 Suppl 1     ISSN:  1557-850X     ISO Abbreviation:  Biosecur Bioterror     Publication Date:  2013 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-08-26     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101156085     Medline TA:  Biosecur Bioterror     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S17-24     Citation Subset:  IM    
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