Document Detail

Hexachlorobenzene episode in Turkey.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2590490     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
During the period 1955-1959, approximately 4000 people in southeast Anatolia developed porphyria due to the ingestion of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a fungicide added to wheat seedlings. These HCB exposures subsequently led to the development of bullae on sun-exposed areas, hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, and porphyrinuria. The condition was called kara yara or "black sore." Many of the breast-fed children under the age of 2 years whose mothers had ingested HCB-treated grain died from a disease known as pembe yara or "pink sore." In this follow-up study of 252 patients, 20-30 years postexposure, there were 162 males and 90 females, with an average current age of 35.7 years, an average of onset of 7.6 years, and a duration of 2.2 years. Many patients had dermatologic, neurologic, and orthopedic symptoms and signs. The observed clinical findings include scarring of the face and hands (83.7%), hyperpigmentation (65%), hypertrichosis (44.8%), pinched facies (40.1%), painless arthritis (70.2%), small hands (66.6%), sensory shading (60.6%), myotonia (37.9%), cogwheeling (41.9%), enlarged thyroid (34.9%), and enlarged liver (4.8%). Urine and stool porphyrin levels were determined in all patients, and 17 have at least one of the porphyrins elevated. A total of 56 specimens of human milk obtained from mothers with porphyria were analyzed for HCB. The average value was 0.51 ppm in HCB-exposed patients compared to 0.07 ppm in unexposed controls. Offspring of mothers with three decades of HCB-induced porphyria appear normal.
A Gocmen; H A Peters; D J Cripps; G T Bryan; C R Morris
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES     Volume:  2     ISSN:  0895-3988     ISO Abbreviation:  Biomed. Environ. Sci.     Publication Date:  1989 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1990-01-25     Completed Date:  1990-01-25     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8909524     Medline TA:  Biomed Environ Sci     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  36-43     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Hacettepe, Ankara, Turkey.
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MeSH Terms
Child, Preschool
Chlorobenzenes / poisoning*
Disease Outbreaks
Feces / analysis
Follow-Up Studies
Hexachlorobenzene / analysis,  poisoning*
Milk, Human / analysis
Porphyrias / chemically induced*,  epidemiology,  metabolism
Porphyrins / analysis,  urine
Skin Diseases / chemically induced,  epidemiology,  metabolism
Turkey / epidemiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chlorobenzenes; 0/Porphyrins; 118-74-1/Hexachlorobenzene

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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