|Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 22647707 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|BACKGROUND: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used in polystyrene foams in thermal insulation and electrical equipment. The HBCD commercial mixture consists mainly of α, β, and γ stereoisomers. Health concerns of HBCD exposure include alterations in immune and reproductive systems, neurotoxic effects, and endocrine disruption. Stereoisomer-specific levels of HBCD have not been measured previously in U.S. food.
OBJECTIVES: We measured HBCD stereoisomer levels in U.S. foods from Dallas, Texas, supermarkets.
METHODS: Convenience samples of commonly consumed foods were purchased from supermarkets in Dallas in 2009-2010. Food samples included a wide variety of lipid-rich foods: fish, peanut butter, poultry, pork, and beef. Thirty-six individual food samples were collected in 2010 and analyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten pooled food samples previously collected in 2009 for a study of total HBCD levels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were reanalyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: Of the 36 measured individual foods, 15 (42%) had detectable levels of HBCD. Median (ranges) of α- and γ-HBCD concentrations were 0.003 (< 0.005-1.307) and 0.005 (< 0.010-0.143) ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; β-HBCD was present in three samples with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005-0.019) ng/g ww. Median levels (range) for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, in pooled samples were 0.077 (0.010-0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002-0.070), and 0.024 (0.012-0.170) ng/g ww, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: α-HBCD was detected most frequently and at highest concentrations, followed by γ-, and then β-HBCD, in food samples from Dallas, Texas. Food may be a substantial contributor to the elevated α-HBCD levels observed in humans. These data suggest that larger and more representative sampling should be conducted.
|Arnold Schecter; David T Szabo; James Miller; Tyra L Gent; Noor Malik-Bass; Malte Petersen; Olaf Paepke; Justin A Colacino; Linda S Hynan; T Robert Harris; Sunitha Malla; Linda S Birnbaum|
Related Documents :
|20131787 - Analysis, distribution, and dietary exposure of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in cookies an...
2083477 - A clinical comparison of two electric toothbrushes with different mechanical actions.
4044977 - A simplified method of focal salabrasion for removal of linear tattoos.
18656347 - Production of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-heating ...
2071187 - Food habits & anthropometry of two tribes of rajmahal hills, bihar.
9719757 - Absorbability of sulphamonomethoxine and sulphadimethoxine administered via food of lay...
|Type: Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Date: 2012-05-18|
|Title: Environmental health perspectives Volume: 120 ISSN: 1552-9924 ISO Abbreviation: Environ. Health Perspect. Publication Date: 2012 Sep|
|Created Date: 2012-09-03 Completed Date: 2013-07-24 Revised Date: 2014-05-16|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 0330411 Medline TA: Environ Health Perspect Country: United States|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 1260-4 Citation Subset: IM|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Environmental Pollutants / analysis*
Flame Retardants / analysis*
Food Contamination / analysis*
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Hydrocarbons, Brominated / analysis*
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
|T32 ES007062/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS; T32 ES007062/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS; T32 HG00040/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS|
|0/Environmental Pollutants; 0/Flame Retardants; 0/Hydrocarbons, Brominated; 25637-99-4/hexabromocyclododecane|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Environ Health Perspect
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Environ. Health Perspect
Journal ID (publisher-id): EHP
Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Received Day: 20 Month: 1 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 18 Month: 5 Year: 2012
Electronic publication date: Day: 31 Month: 5 Year: 2012
Print publication date: Month: 9 Year: 2012
Volume: 120 Issue: 9
First Page: 1260 Last Page: 1264
PubMed Id: 22647707
Publisher Id: ehp.1204993
|Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Stereoisomers in U.S. Food from Dallas, Texas|
|David T. Szabo2|
|Tyra L. Gent1|
|Justin A. Colacino4|
|Linda S. Hynan5|
|T. Robert Harris1|
|Linda S. Birnbaum67|
1University of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, Texas, USA
2National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arlington, Virginia, USA
3Eurofins Gfa GmbH Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany
4Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
5Department of Clinical Sciences and Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
6National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, USA
7National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
|Correspondence: Address correspondence to A. Schecter, University of Texas School of Public Health, 6011 Harry Hines Blvd., V8.122E, Dallas, TX 75390-9128 USA. Telephone: (214) 336-8519. Fax: (214) 648-1081. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon flame retardant (BFR) used in polystyrene foam for thermal insulation in buildings, upholstery textiles, and electrical equipment (Covaci et al. 2006). HBCD is a major BFR produced globally, and before the phase-out of certain polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), it was the third most abundant BFR in North America, after tetrabromobisphenol A and PBDEs (Johnson-Restrepo et al. 2008). HBCD enters the environment during its production and by leaching from consumer products (Covaci et al. 2006). Human exposure occurs through dust inhalation and dust and food ingestion (Abdallah and Harrad 2009; Schecter et al. 2009; Thomsen et al. 2008). HBCD is hydrophobic and lipophilic, and it bioaccumulates with half-lives of 2, 60, and 240 days in air, water, and sediment, respectively (Abdallah and Harrad 2009; Germer et al. 2006; Haukås et al. 2009; Johnson-Restrepo et al. 2008; Kunisue et al. 2007; Thomsen et al. 2008; Törnkvist et al. 2011). Terminal elimination half-lives in nonoccupationally exposed humans were calculated to be on average 64 days (range 23–219 days) (Geyer et al. 2004), using the daily intake for total HBCD in adult humans based on a Swedish market basket study (Lind et al. 2002). The authors attributed the high variability observed in half-lives to differences in exposure, total body fat content, and biological differences that affect bioaccumulation, uptake, metabolism, and elimination. Abdallah and Harrad (2011) calculated a human half-life of 165 days for α-HBCD (representing 75% of the maximum half-life of 219 days for the HBCD mixture), whereas a half-life of 55 days was estimated for the β- and γ-isomers (25% of 219 days).
HBCD is categorized as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) because of its persistence, toxicity, and abilities to bioaccumulate and to travel over long distances. It is currently on the European Chemicals Agency candidate list of substances of very high concern (European Chemicals Agency 2010). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an action plan for HBCD and is considering adding it to its list of “chemicals of concern” (U.S. EPA 2010).
Increased attention has focused on the individual stereoisomers that constitute the HBCD commercial mixture. In laboratory animal studies, individual stereoisomers that compose the commercial mixture have been shown to have different biological properties (Szabo et al. 2010, 2011a). There are three main stereoisomers in the commercial mixture: α-HBCD (10–13%), β-HBCD (1–12%), and γ-HBCD (75–89%) (Heeb et al. 2005). γ-HBCD dominates in the commercial mixture and in the environment, whereas biota show a predominance of α-HBCD (Arsenault et al. 2007; Law et al. 2008). The largest tissue depots found after oral exposure to γ-HBCD in mice included the liver, brain, blood, and fat; however, tissue levels were low because of γ-HBCD’s rapid metabolism and elimination (Szabo et al. 2010). For γ-HBCD, the mouse biological half-life was estimated at 1–4 days with limited capability for bioaccumulation (Szabo et al. 2010). This is in contrast to α-HBCD, which has a biological half-life of 17 days in mice. α-HBCD bioaccumulates and its tissue distribution is dictated by lipophilicity, with higher levels being detected in mouse adipose, liver, muscle, and skin tissues (Szabo et al. 2011a). α-HBCD predominates in biota in part because of the rapid metabolism of γ-HBCD to α-HBCD (Szabo et al. 2010). Toxicity studies suggest that the commercial mixture of HBCD is an endocrine disruptor and developmental neurotoxicant; specifically, HBCD commercial mixtures have been associated with changes in rat thyroid systems (Palace et al. 2010; Saegusa et al. 2009), altered function of human natural killer cells (Hinkson and Whalen 2009, 2010), and neurotoxic effects such as decreased fine manipulative abilities and lower attention in children (Roze et al. 2009). Studies on the health effects of individual stereoisomers are extremely limited. The difficulty of analytical separation, quantities, and purity needed for both in vivo and in vitro experiments have limited the progress of toxicity studies examining individual HBCD stereoisomers.
Because of the different physical, chemical, and biological properties of the HBCD stereoisomers, there is a growing demand to design studies characterizing individual HBCD stereoisomers. Although studies have investigated HBCD in the environment (Haukås et al. 2009; Law et al. 2008), dust (Harrad et al. 2009), human serum (Roosens et al. 2009), human milk (Ryan et al. 2006), and animal tissues (Johnson-Restrepo et al. 2008; Zegers et al. 2005), few have examined HBCD contamination of food. Such information is notably sparse for foods found in the United States. We previously reported “total HBCD” levels in pooled samples of U.S. food but did not differentiate between stereoisomers (Schecter et al. 2009). Because ingestion is believed to be a major exposure route for HBCD (Covaci et al. 2006), and to examine stereoisomer-specific dietary concentrations from food consumed by the U.S. population, we report here, for the first time, concentrations of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers in selected foods from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas.
Sample collection. In this study, food samples were collected in Dallas, Texas, in 2009 and 2010. Further study will be needed to determine representative levels for U.S. food in general.
Analysis of individual food samples collected in 2010 for HBCD stereoisomers used liquid chromatography/electrospray negative ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A convenience collection of foods (n = 36) was purchased in 2010 from supermarkets in Dallas. The 2010 selection of foods was based on findings of quantifiable HBCD levels in our previous study of total HBCD concentration in U.S. food (Schecter et al. 2009). Food sampled in this analysis included fish, peanut butter, turkey, pork, and beef. After collection, the foods were frozen at –80°C and sent on dry ice to Eurofins Gfa GmbH Laboratory (Hamburg, Germany) for stereoisomer-specific HBCD analysis. Each food sample was individually analyzed for HBCD stereoisomer levels using LC-MS/MS.
Reanalysis of pooled U.S. food samples collected in 2009 for HBCD stereoisomers used LC-MS/MS. In our previous study (Schecter et al. 2009), 31 pooled samples from Dallas supermarkets were analyzed for “total HBCD” (Schecter et al. 2009). The foods selected were a convenience sample of commonly consumed foods purchased at local supermarkets, including fish, peanut butter, and poultry. Samples were frozen at –80oC and shipped on dry ice to Hamburg, Germany, and stored in a deep freezer in Hamburg until analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Thirteen of the 31 (42%) pooled samples contained detectable levels of HBCD. Of these 13 pooled samples, 10 had adequate amounts of sample remaining for additional analysis and were chosen for stereoisomer-specific analysis to validate and compare to our previous findings of total HBCD levels. Reanalysis of the 10 pooled 2009 food samples for HBCD stereoisomers was conducted using LC-MS/MS.
Chemical analyses. The isotope dilution analysis is a technique used to provide the best precision and accuracy for these chemical analyses. Three native HBCD standards (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers; purity of ≥ 98%) and one carbon-13 (13C)-labeled standard (γ-HBCD) were obtained from Wellington Laboratories, (Guelph, Ontario, Canada). The internal standard, 13C-labeled γ-HBCD, was added to the homogenized fraction. Soxhlet extraction was performed with hexane:acetone (4:1). The lipid extract was separated, further purified with sulfuric acid, then cleaned up with aluminum oxide (2% water). The final extract was reduced and dried under a light stream of nitrogen and then dissolved in 100 µL methanol for LC-MS/MS analysis. The measurements were performed using LC-MS/MS detection (Varian 1200L LC-MS/MS Triple Quadrupole) with solvents water/acetone/methanol (H2O/ACN/MeOH; 20/30/50% vol/vol) [solution A (A)] and ACN/MeOH (30/70% vol/vol) [solution B (B)]. The gradient program consisted of 2 min at 100% (A)/0% (B), ramped to 25% (A)/75% (B) in 13.5 min and held for 4 min, then ramped to 100% (A)/0% (B) in 1 min and held for 6 min. A C18 guard cartridge [4 mm × 2.0 mm inner diameter (i.d.); Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA] and a Synergy 4u Fusion RP C-18 column (100 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 80A; Phenomenex) were used for liquid chromatographic separation.
Quality assurance/quality control measures included a multipoint calibration curve, recalibration of each sequence of analyses (with a minimum of one blank in each batch of a maximum of 10 samples), and duplicate analyses of approximately 20% of the positive samples. Acceptable reproducibility/accuracy was determined by analyzing a laboratory reference sample of pooled fish oil. The ratio between the assigned value and the determined value (i.e., recovery) ranged from 87–110% for α-HBCD (mean 96.5%; relative standard deviation of 8.1%; n = 7); and recovery rates ranged between 80–113% for γ-HBCD (mean 93.3%; reproducibility variation coefficient of 10.7%; n = 7). The concentration of β-HBCD in this reference sample was below the limit of quantification, and therefore recovery rates were unobtainable.
Total HBCD levels were calculated as the sum of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomer levels for each individual food examined, and analyzed with the values below the limit of detection (LOD) set to zero as well as to one-half the LOD (LOD/2). We have elected to report values below the LOD as equal to LOD/2 instead of zero because the results were similar.
Statistical analysis. Continuous measures are described using medians, range, and means. To estimate the total distribution of HBCD stereoisomers in U.S. food, we calculated the proportion of the three HBCD stereoisomers in each individually analyzed sample as the mean stereoisomer divided by the mean of the total HBCD with nondetected food values estimated as LOD/2, weighting each food sample equally. We used IBM SPSS software, version 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) to analyze these data.
Table 1 shows stereoisomer-specific HBCD levels for 36 individually analyzed foods purchased in 2010. For all foods except peanut butter, the LODs for each of the HBCD stereoisomers are 0.005 ng/g for α- and β-HBCD and 0.010 ng/g for γ-HBCD (Table 1). LODs for peanut butter were 0.020 ng/g for α- and β-HBCD and 0.040 ng/g for γ-HBCD. Fifteen of 36 individual food samples (42%) had at least one detectable stereoisomer. α-HBCD was present in 13 samples (36%) with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005–1.307) ng/g wet weight (ww); β-HBCD was present in 3 samples (8%) with a median of 0.003 (< 0.005–0.019) ng/g ww; γ-HBCD was present in 8 samples (22%) with a median of 0.005 (< 0.010–0.143) ng/g ww with median values calculated after setting nondetectable levels to LOD/2. Total HBCD levels for these stereoisomers, calculated as the sum of the three stereoisomers, had a median of 0.012 (< LOD to 1.366) ng/g ww. The mean proportion of each HBCD stereoisomer in all 36 samples was 78.0% α-HBCD, 3.8% β-HBCD, and 18.1% γ-HBCD; the mean proportion of each HBCD stereoisomer for the 15 food samples with at least one detectable stereoisomer was 93.6% α-HBCD, 5.3% β-HBCD, and 1.8% γ-HBCD. Of all the foods studied, canned sardines stand out with an α-HBCD level of 1.307 ng/g ww. Smoked turkey sausages had the next highest α-HBCD level of 0.479 ng/g ww. HBCD levels were < LOD for fresh deli meats and fish, chili with beans, and bacon.
Table 2 presents stereoisomer-specific analysis of 10 pooled food samples purchased in 2009, as well as total HBCD levels previously measured by GC-MS (Schecter et al. 2009). Total HBCD levels as measured by GC-MS and total levels calculated by adding individual stereoisomer levels by LC-MS/MS were similar, with < 0.051-ng/g ww difference between estimates for 9 of the 10 samples. Both α- and γ-HBCD were detected in all 10 analyzed samples, whereas β-HBCD was detected in 8 of 10 analyzed samples, with nondetectable levels of 0.004 and 0.002 ng/g for fresh catfish and canned chili, respectively. Levels for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD [median (range)] were 0.077 (0.010–0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002–0.070), and 0.024 (0.012–0.170) ng/g ww, respectively, with median values calculated after setting nondetectable levels to LOD/2. Total levels as measured by GC-MS were higher than those calculated from LC-MS/MS with two exceptions: a) sliced ham, where the totals calculated from LC-MS/MS were higher, and b) canned chili, where the totals were equal.
Table 3 lists available data on stereoisomer-specific HBCD levels (reported on a wet-weight basis) in foods worldwide. Although comparative data for specific foods in each country are not available, it is notable that Romania (0.040–0.250 ng/g ww), Sweden (0.005–0.630 ng/g ww), United Kingdom (0.104–0.730 ng/g ww), and Norway (0.015–1-0.769 ng/g ww) have reported some of the lowest total HBCD levels (Dirtu and Covaci 2010; Driffield et al. 2008; Knutsen et al. 2008; Törnkvist et al. 2011), and the Netherlands has reported the highest seafood total HBCD level (0.200–230.0 ng/g ww) (van Leeuwen and de Boer 2008). Higher HBCD levels have been measured in food samples from the Netherlands, Japan, and Scotland (Fernandes et al. 2008; Nakagawa et al. 2010; van Leeuwen and de Boer 2008) than in samples tested in the present study.
Although γ-HBCD is the dominant stereoisomer in commercial HBCD mixtures, α-HBCD was the main stereoisomer found in 23 of 46 analyses (10 composite and 13 individual) as has also been reported in other food studies and in biota (Driffield et al. 2008; Knutsen et al. 2008; Law et al. 2008; Nakagawa et al. 2010). This stereoisomer shift from what is in commercial mixtures has been hypothesized to be due to several reasons, including increased thermodynamic stability (Heeb et al. 2010), biological stability, and persistence of the α-HBCD stereoisomer (Szabo et al. 2011a) as compared to γ-HBCD. Rapid metabolism of γ-HBCD in vivo (Szabo et al. 2010) and in vitro (Zegers et al. 2005), along with biological stereoisomerization of γ-HBCD to α-HBCD (Szabo et al. 2010), is also suspected to be a contributing factor to the decreased levels of γ-HBCD and increased levels of α-HBCD in biota, and subsequently animal-based foods consumed in the United States and elsewhere.
Stereoisomer-specific concentrations of HBCD measured in this U.S. food study were lower than HBCD levels measured in food samples from some other countries (Fernandes et al. 2008; Nakagawa et al. 2010; van Leeuwen and de Boer 2008). Some of the foods tested for our study may not have been as lipid rich as the foods tested for other studies (for example, certain types of fish), which could account for some disparities (Hayward et al. 2006). Higher HBCD food levels reported in other studies may also be due to a greater use of HBCD in those countries (Morose 2006). In the present study, we did not note an association between higher lipid levels and higher HBCD levels (results not shown).
HBCD stereoisomer levels reported for the present study and for comparisons with other studies are reported on a wet weight basis, which is more representative of food as eaten then food levels reported on a lipid basis (Goscinny et al. 2011). In contrast, we and many authors report measured values of lipid-soluble compounds in biologic samples from humans on a lipid basis to reflect exposure and body burden. In comparing studies it is important to note whether the data is reported on a wet weight or lipid basis because levels of the lipophilic HBCDs will be higher when reported on a lipid basis. Several other studies have also reported evidence suggesting that lipid-rich fish and meats are a major source of HBCD exposure from foods (Dirtu and Covaci 2010; Driffield et al. 2008; Fernandes et al. 2008; Knutsen et al. 2008; Nakagawa et al. 2010; Törnkvist et al. 2011; van Leeuwen and de Boer 2008). However, it is also becoming clear that HBCD contamination is not restricted to fish or meat.
LC-MS/MS measurements confirmed the high levels of HBCD previously reported in a sample of peanut butter assayed in 2009 using GC-MS (300 and 282 ng/g ww, respectively) (Schecter et al. 2009). Driffield et al. (2008) also detected HBCD in nuts bought in the United Kingdom. Individual PBDE and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, pesticides, and a number of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were found at much lower levels than HBCD in the same pooled peanut butter samples (Schecter et al. 2009, 2010a). However, HBCD stereoisomer levels were nondetectable in the three individual peanut butter samples tested for the present study. There are many ways that the differing levels found in individual and pooled peanut butter samples may be explained. HBCD found in dust may contaminate foods during preparation in the indoor environment (Abdallah and Harrad 2009). Also, HBCD in soil has been shown to be transferred into vegetables in some instances (Li et al. 2011). Heavy metal accumulation in plants can serve as an indicator of soil contamination; chromium, copper, and zinc have been transferred to and accumulated in the roots and leaves of peanut plants grown in soils contaminated with those metals (Ching et al. 2008). It may be possible that uptake of HBCD from soil by peanuts from select regions might have contributed to HBCD levels measured in this study. The distribution of HBCD in other plant tissues is also found to be stereoisomer specific, with higher levels of α-HBCD in stems and leaves and higher levels of γ-HBCD in roots (Li et al. 2011).
Food contamination levels seen in this study and in our previous study (Schecter et al. 2009) differed among samples of the same type of food, for example among different samples of turkey sausages. This may reflect differences in the source of the foods, differences in handling, and dissimilarities in ingredients. Although some variation was seen between foods, the variation in levels among food samples purchased in Dallas may be similar to variation likely to be observed in foods from other U.S. locations. The variation might be partially due to the different environments in which the animals are raised and the differences in feeds used, with cattle being primarily raised outdoors and swine and poultry primarily coming from indoor environments. Thus, it is fair to say that husbandry practices and feed likely influence animal concentrations of HBCD, but packaging may also contribute to the levels detected.
The data we present here concerning HBCD stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), and data on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), PCBs, pesticides, and PBDEs in the same pooled food samples collected in 2009 (Schecter et al. 2009, 2010b), document multiple chemical contamination of U.S. food with various POPs and endocrine disrupting compounds. Interestingly, concentrations of HBCDs are found at higher levels than PCBs, pesticides, and PFCs in those pooled foods measured, and exceeded PBDEs in samples of tilapia, ham, sliced chicken breast, sliced turkey, and peanut butter (Schecter et al. 2009, 2010a). When comparing the total HBCD levels from the 2009 study with total HBCD levels calculated in this study, the total HBCD levels between the two studies are similar, i.e., consistent with the use of different assay methods. It is noteworthy that calculated HBCD intake previously reported for Dallas, Texas, foods of 15.3 ng/day, 2.1 × 10–7 mg/kg-bw/day for a 70-kg individual (Schecter et al. 2009), is < 10 mg/kg-bw/day, which is the no observed adverse effect level in rats after exposure to the HBCD commercial mixture. This level is used as the critical effect level by the European Union to characterize risk (European Commission 2008). To our knowledge, human-based benchmarks are not available.
The toxicity of mixtures of both classical and emerging POPs reported in this study and previously is unknown (Schecter et al. 2010a, 2010b). An analysis of a larger and more representative sampling of Texas and other U.S. foods for a wide range of POPs, including HBCD stereoisomers, is indicated. Exposure and health outcome research should continue because of the lack of data regarding levels of HBCD in food, human dietary and other intake levels, and health effects. Special attention to the effects of HBCD stereoisomers from food is warranted for the developing young because total body burdens in infantile mice are 10- and 2.5-times higher than adult levels after exposure to γ-HBCD and α-HBCD, respectively (Szabo et al. 2011b). These differences would lead to higher concentrations of the HBCD stereoisomers in target tissues during critical windows of development. Further research on the toxicity of individual HBCD stereoisomers and mixtures of these, other POPs, and other toxic chemicals detected in food, is strongly indicated.
Finding HBCD in food from our previous Texas food study and HBCD stereoisomers in this study suggests that contamination of U.S. food with HBCD is ongoing (Schecter et al. 2009). These data also suggest that larger and more representative sampling of U.S. food should be conducted. Future studies should quantify to what extent U.S. foods are contaminated with HBCD stereoisomers, estimate what the toxicity of each and all may be, and fully elucidate the mechanisms of stereoisomer shifts for HBCD in biota and the environment.
This study was partially funded by the Gustavus and Louise Pfeiffer Research Foundation and partially funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Support in part was also provided by an appointment to the Research Participation Program for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. EPA. M. Petersen and O. Paepke are both employed by Eurofins Gfa GmbH Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany. Support for J. Colacino was provided by training grants from the NIEHS (T32 ES007062) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (T32 HG00040).
This manuscript does not reflect policies of the U.S. EPA, NIEHS, National Cancer Institute, or National Institutes of Health. This manuscript reflects only the conclusions of the authors.
The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.
We thank J. Huwe and H. Hakk of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for their expertise and generous time in advising the authors on various aspects of this manuscript.
|Abdallah M,Harrad S. Year: 2009Personal exposure to HBCDs and its degradation products via ingestion of indoor dust.Environ Int3587087619344952|
|Abdallah M,Harrad S. Year: 2011Tetrabromobisphenol-A, hexabromocyclododecane and its degradation products in UK human milk: relationship to external exposure.Environ Int3744344821167604|
|Arsenault G,Konstantinov A,Marvin CH,MacInnis G,McAlees A,McCrindle R,et al. Year: 2007Synthesis of the two minor isomers, δ- and ε-1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane, present in commercial hexabromocyclododecane.Chemosphere6888789217363034|
|Ching JA,Binag CA,Alejandro GJD. Year: 2008Uptake and distribution of some heavy metals in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in artificially contaminated soils.Phillipine Agric Sci912134142|
|Covaci A,Gerecke AC,Law RJ,Voorspoels S,Kohler M,Heeb NV,et al. Year: 2006Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the environment and humans: a review.Environ Sci Technol403679368816830527|
|Dirtu AC,Covaci A. Year: 2010Estimation of daily intake of organohalogenated contaminants from food consumption and indoor dust ingestion in Romania.Environ Sci Technol446297630420704229|
|Driffield M,Harmer N,Bradley E,Fernandes AR,Rose M,Mortimer D,et al. Year: 2008Determination of brominated flame retardants in food by LC-MS/MS: diastereoisomer-specific hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A.Food Addit Contam25895903|
|European Chemicals AgencyYear: 2010Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern for Authorisation. Candidate List Table. Helsinki. Available: http://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/candidate-list-table [accessed 9 July 2012].|
|European CommissionYear: 2008Risk Assessment: Hexabromocyclododecane. CAS-No. 25637-99-4. EINECS No. 247-148-4. Available: http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/doc/risk_assessment/REPORT/hbcddreport044.pdf [accessed 16 July 2012].|
|Fernandes A,Dicks P,Mortimer D,Gem M,Smith F,Driffield M,et al. Year: 2008Brominated and chlorinated dioxins, PCBs and brominated flame retardants in Scottish shellfish: methodology, occurrence and human dietary exposure.Mol Nutr Food Res5223824918186102|
|Germer S,Piersma AH,van der Ven L,Kamyschnikow A,Fery Y,Schmitz H-J,et al. Year: 2006Subacute effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A on hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in rats.Toxicology21822923616325980|
|Geyer HJ,Schramm KW,Darnerud PO,Aune M,Feicht EA,Fried KW. Year: 2004Terminal elimination half-lives of the brominated flame retardants TBBPA, HBCD, and lower brominated PBDEs in humans.Organohalogen Compounds6638673872|
|Goscinny S,Vandevijvere S,Maleki M,Van Overmeire I,Windal I,Hanot V,et al. Year: 2011Dietary intake of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) in the Belgian adult population.Chemosphere.8427928821596419|
|Harrad S,Abdallah MA-E,Covaci A. Year: 2009Causes of variability in concentrations and diastereomer patterns of hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust.Environ Int3557357919062095|
|Haukås M,Hylland K,Berge JA,Nygård T,Mariussen E. Year: 2009Spatial diastereomer patterns of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a Norwegian fjord.Sci Total Environ4075907591319723599|
|Hayward SJ,Lei YD,Wania F. Year: 2006Comparative evaluation of three high-performance liquid chromatography–based Kow estimation methods for highly hydrophobic organic compounds: polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane.Environ Toxicol Chem252018202716916020|
|Heeb NV,Graf H,Bernd Schweizer W,Lienemann P. Year: 2010Thermally-induced transformation of hexabromocyclo dodecanes and isobutoxypenta bromocyclododecanes in flame-proofed polystyrene materials.Chemosphere8070170820580407|
|Heeb NV,Schweizer WB,Kohler M,Gerecke AC. Year: 2005Structure elucidation of hexabromocyclododecanes—a class of compounds with a complex stereochemistry.Chemosphere61657316157171|
|Hinkson NC,Whalen MM. Year: 2009Hexabromocyclododecane decreases the lytic function and ATP levels of human natural killer cells.J Appl Toxicol2965666119551757|
|Hinkson NC,Whalen MM. Year: 2010Hexabromocyclododecane decreases tumor-cell-binding capacity and cell-surface protein expression of human natural killer cells.J Appl Toxicol3030230919938002|
|Johnson-Restrepo B,Adams DH,Kannan K. Year: 2008Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in tissues of humans, dolphins, and sharks from the United States.Chemosphere701935194418037156|
|Knutsen HK,Kvalem HE,Thomsen C,Frøshaug M,Haugen M,Becher G,et al. Year: 2008Dietary exposure to brominated flame retardants correlates with male blood levels in a selected group of Norwegians with a wide range of seafood consumption.Mol Nutr Food Res5221722718246586|
|Kunisue T,Takayanagi N,Isobe T,Takahashi S,Nakatsu S,Tsubota T,et al. Year: 2007Regional trend and tissue distribution of brominated flame retardants and persistent organochlorines in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Japan.Environ Sci Technol4268569118323088|
|Law RJ,Herzke D,Harrad S,Morris S,Bersuder P,Allchin CR. Year: 2008Levels and trends of HBCD and BDEs in the European and Asian environments, with some information for other BFRs.Chemosphere7322324118472134|
|Li Y,Zhou Q,Wang Y,Xie X. Year: 2011Fate of tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in soil and uptake by plants.Chemosphere.8220420921051070|
|Lind Y,Aune M,Atuma S,Becker W,Bjerselius R,Glynn A,et al. Year: 2002Food intake of the brominated flame retardants: PBDE’s and HBCD in Sweden.Organohalogen Compounds58181184|
|Morose G. Year: 2006An Overview of Alternatives to Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)Lowell, MALowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell|
|Nakagawa R,Murata S,Ashizuka Y,Shintani Y,Hori T,Tsutsumi T. Year: 2010Hexabromocyclododecane determination in seafood samples collected from Japanese coastal areas.Chemosphere8144545220825970|
|Palace V,Park B,Pleskach K,Gemmill B,Tomy G. Year: 2010Altered thyroxine metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).Chemosphere8016516920378152|
|Roosens L,Abdallah MA-E,Harrad S,Neels H,Covaci A. Year: 2009Exposure to hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) via dust ingestion, but not diet, correlates with concentrations in human serum: preliminary results.Environ Health Perspect1171707171220049121|
|Roze E,Meijer L,Bakker A,Van Braeckel KNJA,Sauer PJJ,Bos AF. Year: 2009Prenatal exposure to organohalogens, including brominated flame retardants, influences motor, cognitive, and behavioral performance at school age.Environ Health Perspect1171953195820049217|
|Ryan JJ,Wainman BC,Schecter A,Moisey J,Kosarac I,Sun WF. Year: 2006Trends of the brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in human milks from North America.Organohalogen Compounds68778781|
|Saegusa Y,Fujimoto H,Woo G-H,Inoue K,Takahashi M,Mitsumori K,et al. Year: 2009Developmental toxicity of brominated flame retardants, tetrabromobisphenol A and 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane, in rat offspring after maternal exposure from mid-gestation through lactation.Reprod Toxicol2845646719577631|
|Schecter A,Colacino J,Haffner D,Patel K,Opel M,Päpke O,et al. Year: 2010aPerfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticide contamination in composite food samples from Dallas, Texas, USA.Environ Health Perspect11879680220146964|
|Schecter A,Colacino J,Patel K,Kannan K,Yun SH,Haffner D,et al. Year: 2010bPolybrominated diphenyl ether levels in foodstuffs collected from three locations from the United States.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol24321722419835901|
|Schecter A,Haffner D,Colacino J,Patel K,Päpke O,Opel M,et al. Year: 2009Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples.Environ Health Perspect11835736220064778|
|Szabo DT,Diliberto JJ,Hakk H,Huwe JK,Birnbaum LS. Year: 2010Toxicokinetics of the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane gamma: effect of dose, timing, route, repeated exposure, and metabolism.Toxicol Sci11728229320562218|
|Szabo DT,Diliberto JJ,Hakk H,Huwe JK,Birnbaum LS. Year: 2011aToxicokinetics of the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane alpha: effect of dose, timing, route, repeated exposure, and metabolism.Toxicol Sci12123424421441408|
|Szabo DT,Diliberto JJ,Huwe JK,Birnbaum LS. Year: 2011bAccumulation and distribution of HBCD alpha and gamma in developing mice differs from that in adults.Toxicol Sci12325626321705717|
|Thomsen C,Knutsen HK,Liane VH,Frøshaug M,Kvalem HE,et al. Year: 2008Consumption of fish from a contaminated lake strongly affects the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in serum.Mol Nutr Food Res5222823718186101|
|Törnkvist A,Glynn A,Aune M,Darnerud PO,Ankarberg EH. Year: 2011PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides in a Swedish market basket from 2005—levels and dietary intake estimations.Chemosphere8319319921269658|
|U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)Year: 2010Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Action Plan Summary. Available: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/actionplans/RIN2070-AZ10_HBCD%20action%20plan_Final_2010-08-09.pdf [accessed 9 July 2012].|
|van Leeuwen SPJ,de Boer J. Year: 2008Brominated flame retardants in fish and shellfish—levels and contribution of fish consumption to dietary exposure of Dutch citizens to HBCD.Mol Nutr Food Res5219420318246585|
|Zegers BN,Mets A,van Bommel R,Minkenberg C,Hamers T,Kamstra JH,et al. Year: 2005Levels of hexabromocyclododecane in harbor porpoises and common dolphins from western European seas, with evidence for stereoisomer-specific biotransformation by cytochrome P450.Environ Sci Technol392095210015871242|
HBCD levels in individual U.S. food samples purchased and analyzed in 2010 using LC-MS/MS (ng/g ww) (n = 36).
|Sardines in water||1.366||1.307||< 0.005||0.056|
|Smoked turkey sausages||0.518||0.479||< 0.005||0.036|
|Fresh salmon, store A||0.446||0.327||< 0.005||0.116|
|Fresh salmon, store B||0.410||0.346||< 0.005||0.061|
|Sardines in olive oil #1||0.270||0.262||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh catfish, store B||0.162||0.115||0.016||0.031|
|Fresh deli sliced turkey, store B||0.155||0.135||< 0.005||0.017|
|Fresh tilapia, store A||0.148||< 0.005||< 0.005||0.143|
|Chili with beans #1||0.105||< 0.005||< 0.005||0.100|
|Sardines in olive oil #2||0.067||0.059||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced ham, store C||0.051||0.027||0.019||< 0.010|
|Smoked turkey sausages #1||0.049||0.029||0.015||< 0.010|
|Creamy peanut butter #1||0.040||< 0.020||< 0.020||< 0.040|
|Creamy peanut butter #2||0.040||< 0.020||< 0.020||< 0.040|
|Creamy peanut butter #3||0.040||< 0.020||< 0.020||< 0.040|
|Smoked turkey sausages #2||0.032||0.024||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh catfish, store A||0.016||0.008||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh catfish, store C||0.014||0.006||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Chili with beans #2||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Chili with beans #3||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Bacon #1||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Bacon #2||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Bacon #3||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced beef, store C||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced turkey, store C||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced chicken, store C||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced beef, store A||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced ham, store A||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced turkey, store A||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced chicken, store B||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh tilapia, store C||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fish sticks #1||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fish sticks #2||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fish sticks #3||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh tilapia, store C||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|Fresh deli sliced beef, store C||0.010||< 0.005||< 0.005||< 0.010|
|aLODs based on a 20-g sample size. bTotal HBCD levels calculated as sum of stereoisomers with values < LOD set to LOD/2; mean and median values also calculated after setting values < LOD to LOD/2.|
HBCD levels in U.S. food samples purchased in 2009 (Schecter et al. 2009) analyzed using GC-MS and reanalyzed using LC-MS/MS in 2010 (n = 10) (ng/g ww).
|Totala (GC-MS)b||Total (LC-MS/MS)||Stereoisomer levels|
|Fresh catfish||0.133||0.109||0.050||< 0.004c||0.057|
|Sliced chicken breast||0.098||0.048||0.025||0.008||0.015|
|Canned chili||0.023||0.023||0.010||< 0.002c||0.012|
|aTotal HBCD levels measured by laboratory and not calculated as sum of stereoisomers. bData from Schecter et al. 2009. cValues < LOD.|
HBCD levels [range (ng/g ww)] in food worldwide.
|USA||Seafood, meat, peanut butter||0.006–1.307||0.006–0.070||0.012–0.170||0.010–1.366||Present study|
|Japan||Seafood||0.010–18.30||0.010–2.440||0.020–56.60||0.010–77.30||Nakagawa et al. 2010|
|Norway||Seafood||0.005–0.653||0.003–0.063||0.007–0.053||0.015–0.769||Knutsen et al. 2008|
|United Kingdom||Meat, sugars, vegetables, fruits, nuts||0.055–0.290||0.030–0.320||0.019–0.120||0.104–0.730||Driffield et al. 2008|
|The Netherlands||Seafood||NA||NA||NA||0.200–230.0||van Leeuwen and de Boer 2008|
|Scotland||Seafood||NA||NA||NA||0.030–12.10||Fernandes et al. 2008|
|Romania||Meat, dairy, oil||NA||NA||NA||0.040–0.250||Dirtu and Covaci 2010|
|Sweden||Fish, meat, dairy, eggs, fats||NA||NA||NA||0.005–0.630||Törnkvist et al. 2011|
|NA, not available.|
Keywords: Dallas, Texas, food, HBCD, hexabromocyclododecane, stereoisomers.
Previous Document: Significance of physical weathering of two-texturally different soils for the saturated transport of...
Next Document: Normal early pregnancy: a transient state of epigenetic change favoring hypomethylation.