Document Detail

Hepatic stellate cells: protean, multifunctional, and enigmatic cells of the liver.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18195085     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The hepatic stellate cell has surprised and engaged physiologists, pathologists, and hepatologists for over 130 years, yet clear evidence of its role in hepatic injury and fibrosis only emerged following the refinement of methods for its isolation and characterization. The paradigm in liver injury of activation of quiescent vitamin A-rich stellate cells into proliferative, contractile, and fibrogenic myofibroblasts has launched an era of astonishing progress in understanding the mechanistic basis of hepatic fibrosis progression and regression. But this simple paradigm has now yielded to a remarkably broad appreciation of the cell's functions not only in liver injury, but also in hepatic development, regeneration, xenobiotic responses, intermediary metabolism, and immunoregulation. Among the most exciting prospects is that stellate cells are essential for hepatic progenitor cell amplification and differentiation. Equally intriguing is the remarkable plasticity of stellate cells, not only in their variable intermediate filament phenotype, but also in their functions. Stellate cells can be viewed as the nexus in a complex sinusoidal milieu that requires tightly regulated autocrine and paracrine cross-talk, rapid responses to evolving extracellular matrix content, and exquisite responsiveness to the metabolic needs imposed by liver growth and repair. Moreover, roles vital to systemic homeostasis include their storage and mobilization of retinoids, their emerging capacity for antigen presentation and induction of tolerance, as well as their emerging relationship to bone marrow-derived cells. As interest in this cell type intensifies, more surprises and mysteries are sure to unfold that will ultimately benefit our understanding of liver physiology and the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease.
Scott L Friedman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological reviews     Volume:  88     ISSN:  0031-9333     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2008 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-01-15     Completed Date:  2008-02-28     Revised Date:  2013-06-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0231714     Medline TA:  Physiol Rev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  125-72     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Liver Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029-6574, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Hemostasis / physiology
Liver / cytology*,  injuries,  physiology*
Liver Cirrhosis
Liver Diseases / pathology,  physiopathology
Grant Support

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