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Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Mediate the Angiogenic Activity of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Agonist Gremlin.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21921258     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVE: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) modulate the interaction of proangiogenic heparin-binding vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) with signaling VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and neuropilin coreceptors in endothelial cells (ECs). The bone morphogenic protein antagonist gremlin is a proangiogenic ligand of VEGFR2, distinct from canonical VEGFs. Here we investigated the role of HSPGs in VEGFR2 interaction, signaling, and proangiogenic capacity of gremlin in ECs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that gremlin binds heparin and heparan sulfate, but not other glycosaminoglycans, via N-, 2-O, and 6-O-sulfated groups of the polysaccharide. Accordingly, gremlin binds HSPGs of the EC surface and extracellular matrix. Gremlin/HSPG interaction is prevented by free heparin and heparan sulfate digestion or undersulfation following EC treatment with heparinase II or sodium chlorate. However, at variance with canonical heparin-binding VEGFs, gremlin does not interact with neuropilin-1 coreceptor. On the other hand, HSPGs mediate VEGFR2 engagement and autophosphorylation, extracellular signaling-regulated kinase(1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and consequent proangiogenic responses of ECs to gremlin. On this basis, we evaluated the gremlin-antagonist activity of a panel of chemically sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide. The results demonstrate that the highly N,O-sulfated derivative K5-N,OS(H) binds gremlin with high potency, thus inhibiting VEGFR2 interaction and angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: HSPGs act as functional gremlin coreceptors in ECs, affecting its productive interaction with VEGFR2 and angiogenic activity. This has allowed the identification of the biotechnological K5-N,OS(H) as a novel angiostatic gremlin antagonist.
Paola Chiodelli; Stefania Mitola; Cosetta Ravelli; Pasqua Oreste; Marco Rusnati; Marco Presta
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-9-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1524-4636     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-9-16     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9505803     Medline TA:  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Unit of General Pathology and Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
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