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Heart adaptations to long-term aerobic training in paraplegic subjects: an echocardiographic study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22270194     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Study design:Case-control.Objectives:To execute an echocardiographic comparison between trained and untrained spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects, and to evaluate whether long-term heart adjustments to endurance training are comparable to those observed in able-bodied (ABL) subjects.Setting:Italy.Methods:We enrolled: (1) 17 male SCI patients (lesion level T(1)-L(3), 34±8 years, body mass index (BMI) 23.0±2.8 kg m(-2)), 10 of whom were aerobically trained for >5 years (SCI(T)); (2) 18 age-, sex- and BMI-matched ABL subjects (35±6 years, BMI 23.6±2.8 kg m(-2)), 10 of whom were aerobically trained for >5 years (ABL(T)). Training frequency and volume were recorded by a dedicated questionnaire. All subjects underwent a trans-thoracic echocardiography; SCI subjects also performed an exhaustive incremental exercise test. Comparisons were made between ABL and SCI groups, between trained and untrained subjects within each group (analysis of variance).Results:Effects of SCI-Compared with ABL subjects, SCI patients showed lower end-diastolic volume (76±21 vs 113±23 ml, P<0.05) and ejection fraction (61±7% vs 65±5%, P<0.05). Effects of training-Compared with untrained status, the intra-ventricular septum thickness (SCI, +18%; ABL, +4%), the posterior wall thickness (SCI, +17%; ABL, +2%) and the total normalized heart mass (SCI, +48%; ABL, +5%) were higher in both SCI(T) and in ABL(T). VO(2)peak was higher in the SCI(T) subgroup compared with the SCI(U) group.Conclusions:Heart seems to positively adapt to long-term endurance training in SCI patients. Regular exercise may therefore increase heart size, septum and posterior wall thickness, which likely contributes to improved VO(2)peak. These morphological and functional changes may reduce cardiovascular risk in SCI individuals.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 24 January 2012; doi:10.1038/sc.2011.189.
M A Maggioni; M Ferratini; A Pezzano; J E Heyman; L Agnello; A Veicsteinas; G Merati
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Spinal cord     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1476-5624     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9609749     Medline TA:  Spinal Cord     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Sport Sciences, Nutrition and Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
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