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Hearing Function in Patients Living With HIV/AIDS.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25127320     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVES:: During the earlier years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, initial reports described sensorineural hearing loss in up to 49% of individuals with HIV/AIDS. During those years, patients commonly progressed to advanced stages of HIV disease and frequently had neurological complications. However, the abnormalities on pure-tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked responses outlined in small studies were not always consistently correlated with advanced stages of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these studies could not exclude the confounding effect of concurrent opportunistic infections and syphilis. Additional reports also have indicated that some antiretroviral medications may be ototoxic; thus, it has been difficult to make conclusions regarding the cause of changes in hearing function in HIV-infected patients. More recently, accelerated aging has been suggested as a potential explanation for the disproportionate increase in complications of aging described in many HIV-infected patients; hence, accelerated aging-associated hearing loss may also be playing a role in these patients.
METHODS:: We conducted a large cross-sectional analysis of hearing function in over 300 patients with HIV-1 infection and in 137 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected participants and HIV-uninfected controls underwent a 2-hr battery of hearing tests including the Hearing Handicap Inventory, standard audiometric pure-tone air and bone conduction testing, tympanometric testing, and speech reception and discrimination testing.
RESULTS:: Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analysis of 278 eligible HIV-infected subjects stratified by disease stage in early HIV disease (n = 127) and late HIV disease (n = 148) and 120 eligible HIV-uninfected controls revealed no statistically significant differences among the three study groups in either overall 4-frequency pure-tone average (4-PTA) or hearing loss prevalence in either ear. Three-way ANOVA showed significant differences in word recognition scores in the right ear among groups, a significant group effect on tympanogram static admittance in both ears and a significant group effect on tympanic gradient in the right ear. There was significantly larger admittance and gradient in controls as compared to the HIV-infected group at late stage of disease. Hearing loss in the HIV-infected groups was associated with increased age and was similar to that described in the literature for the general population. Three-way ANOVA analysis also indicated significantly greater pure-tone thresholds (worse hearing) at low frequencies in HIV patients in the late stage of disease compared with HIV-uninfected controls. This difference was also found by semi-parametric mixed effects models.
CONCLUSIONS:: Despite reports of "premature" or "accelerated" aging in HIV-infected subjects, we found no evidence of hearing loss occurring at an earlier age in HIV-infected patients compared to HIV-uninfected controls. Similar to what is described in the general population, the probability of hearing loss increased with age in the HIV-infected subjects and was more common in patients over 60 years of age. Interestingly, HIV-infected subjects had worse hearing at lower frequencies and have significant differences in tympanometry compared to HIV-uninfected controls; these findings deserve further study.
Amneris E Luque; Mark S Orlando; U-Cheng Leong; Paul D Allen; Joseph J Guido; Hongmei Yang; Hulin Wu
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-8-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Ear and hearing     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1538-4667     ISO Abbreviation:  Ear Hear     Publication Date:  2014 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-8-15     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005585     Medline TA:  Ear Hear     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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