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Health Benefits of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22361189     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged.
Nalin Siriwardhana; Nishan S Kalupahana; Naima Moustaid-Moussa
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Advances in food and nutrition research     Volume:  65     ISSN:  1043-4526     ISO Abbreviation:  Adv. Food Nutr. Res.     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-02-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9001271     Medline TA:  Adv Food Nutr Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  211-22     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA; UT Obesity Research Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
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