Document Detail

Heading in football. Part 3: effect of ball properties on head response.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16046354     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: Head impacts from footballs are an essential part of the game but have been implicated in mild and acute neuropsychological impairment. Ball characteristics have been noted in literature to affect the impact response of the head; however, the biomechanics are not well understood. The present study determined whether ball mass, pressure, and construction characteristics help reduce head and neck can impact response. METHODS: Head responses under ball impact (6-7 m/s) were measured with a biofidelic numerical human model and controlled human subject trials (n = 3). Three ball masses and four ball pressures were investigated for frontal heading. Further, the effect of ball construction in wet/dry conditions was studied with the numerical model. The dynamic ball characteristics were determined experimentally. Head linear and angular accelerations were measured and compared with injury assessment functions comprising peak values and head impact power. Neck responses were assessed with the numerical model. RESULTS: Ball mass reductions up to 35% resulted in decreased head responses up to 23-35% for the numerical and subject trials. Similar decreases in neck axial and shear responses were observed. Ball pressure reductions of 50% resulted in head and neck response reductions up to 10-31% for the subject trials and numerical model. Head response reductions up to 15% were observed between different ball constructions. The wet condition generally resulted in greater head and neck responses of up to 20%. CONCLUSION: Ball mass, pressure, and construction can reduce the impact severity to the head and neck. It is foreseeable that the benefits can be extended to players of all ages and skill levels.
N Shewchenko; C Withnall; M Keown; R Gittens; J Dvorak
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  British journal of sports medicine     Volume:  39 Suppl 1     ISSN:  1473-0480     ISO Abbreviation:  Br J Sports Med     Publication Date:  2005 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-07-27     Completed Date:  2005-08-15     Revised Date:  2010-09-20    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0432520     Medline TA:  Br J Sports Med     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  i33-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Biokinetics and Associates Ltd, Ontario, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Biomechanics / methods
Equipment Design* / adverse effects,  standards
Head Injuries, Closed / etiology*
Head Movements / physiology*
Injury Severity Score
Models, Theoretical
Posture / physiology
Risk Factors
Soccer / injuries*,  physiology
Sports Equipment / adverse effects,  standards

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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