Document Detail


Is an HIV vaccine possible?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20231996     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env) glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.
Authors:
Nancy A Wilson; David I Watkins
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases     Volume:  13     ISSN:  1678-4391     ISO Abbreviation:  Braz J Infect Dis     Publication Date:  2009 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-03-16     Completed Date:  2010-06-02     Revised Date:  2014-09-22    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9812937     Medline TA:  Braz J Infect Dis     Country:  Brazil    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  304-10     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
AIDS Vaccines / immunology*
Animals
Antibodies, Viral / immunology*
HIV / immunology*
HIV Infections / immunology,  prevention & control*
Humans
Macaca mulatta
SAIDS Vaccines / immunology
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / prevention & control
Simian immunodeficiency virus / immunology
Viral Load / immunology*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
HHSN266200400088C//PHS HHS; N01 AI040088/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; P51 RR000167/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; P51 RR000167/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; P51 RR000167-47A16607/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R01 AI049120/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI049120/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI049120-09/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI076114/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI076114-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01AI076114/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R21 AI077472/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R21 AI077472/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R21 AI077472-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R24 RR015371/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R24 RR015371/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R24 RR015371-10/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R24 RR016038/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R24 RR016038/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R24 RR016038-10/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R37 AI052056/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R37 AI052056/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R37 AI052056-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; RR020141-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; RR15459-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/AIDS Vaccines; 0/Antibodies, Viral; 0/SAIDS Vaccines
Comments/Corrections

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