Document Detail


HIV-associated chronic immune activation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23772616     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4(+) T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by anti-retroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4(+) T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4(+) T-cell loss has not been formally established. This article provides first a brief historical overview on how the perception of the causative role of immune activation has changed over the years and lists the different kinds of immune activation characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The mechanisms proposed to explain the chronic immune activation are multiple and are enumerated here, as well as the mechanisms proposed on how chronic immune activation could lead to AIDS. In addition, we summarize the lessons learned from natural hosts that know how to 'show AIDS the door', and discuss how these studies informed the design of novel immune modulatory interventions that are currently being tested. Finally, we review the current approaches aimed at targeting chronic immune activation and evoke future perspectives.
Authors:
Mirko Paiardini; Michaela Müller-Trutwin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunological reviews     Volume:  254     ISSN:  1600-065X     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-18     Completed Date:  2014-01-24     Revised Date:  2014-03-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7702118     Medline TA:  Immunol Rev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  78-101     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*,  virology
HIV Infections / immunology*,  virology
HIV-1 / immunology*,  metabolism
Humans
Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
Lymphocyte Depletion
Lymphoid Tissue / immunology,  virology
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology,  virology
Viral Proteins / immunology
Virus Replication
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
P51 OD011132/OD/NIH HHS; P51OD011132/OD/NIH HHS; R01 AI084836/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01-AI084836/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R56 AI087186/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R56-AI087186/AI/NIAID NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Viral Proteins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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