Document Detail


HIV transmission.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23043157     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies.
Authors:
George M Shaw; Eric Hunter
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2012-11-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine     Volume:  2     ISSN:  2157-1422     ISO Abbreviation:  Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-05     Completed Date:  2013-05-06     Revised Date:  2014-11-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101571139     Medline TA:  Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Disease Models, Animal
HIV Infections / diagnosis,  epidemiology,  transmission*,  virology
HIV-1 / genetics*,  immunology
Humans
Models, Theoretical*
Phenotype
Receptors, CCR5
env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R01 AI051231/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R37 AI051231/AI/NIAID NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Receptors, CCR5; 0/env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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