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HIV Transmission to Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22929171     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND:: Prematurity increases the peri-natal HIV transmission rate compared to term infants. There is sparse literature documenting the risk of transmission of HIV to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV to ELBW infants in a tertiary neonatal unit in South Africa. METHODS:: A prospective database was maintained on all inborn ELBW infants over a 1 year period from March 2010 until February 2011. Survival and DNA HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results at 6 weeks were recorded. RESULTS:: Of180 ELBW infants, fifty one (28%) of these babies were HIV-exposed. Of these 51 infants, 37 survived until age 6 weeks. PCR testing revealed one HIV positive infant for a rate of 2.7% (95 % confidence interval, 0.7-14.1% ). Twenty six (72%) of the 36 mothers received antiretroviral drugs(ARVs), but only 16 (44%) had been treated for more than one month. CONCLUSION:: The rate of HIV transmission in this cohort of ELBW infants is very low despite only 44% of the mothers receiving adequate ARVs. We postulate that this is due to our high (89%) Caesarean section rate, universal (100%) infant prophylactic ARVs and the use of pasteurized breast milk.
Authors:
Lloyd Tooke; Alan R Horn; Michael C Harrison
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Pediatric infectious disease journal     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-0987     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8701858     Medline TA:  Pediatr Infect Dis J     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Neonatology, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town.
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