Document Detail

Glycemic index, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10568336     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Although Americans have decreased the percent of energy they consume from fat, obesity and obesity-related comorbidities have progressively increased. Less attention has been paid to the role of carbohydrates, especially carbohydrate source, in these metabolic diseases. However, recent epidemiologic studies demonstrate consistently higher rates of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes in individuals deriving a greater percentage of energy from refined grains and simple carbohydrates than from whole grains. Differences in the metabolic response to carbohydrates can be classified by glycemic index (GI), the blood glucose response to a given food compared with a standard (typically white bread or glucose). Classification of carbohydrates as "simple" or "complex" is of little use in predicting GI, because GI is influenced by starch structure (amylose versus amylopectin), fiber content, food processing, physical structure of the food, and other macronutrients in the meal. Low-GI diets have been reported to lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses, improve lipid profiles, and increase insulin sensitivity. Moreover, high-GI diets stimulate de novo lipogenesis and result in increased adipocyte size, whereas low-GI diets have been reported to inhibit these responses. Thus, the GI of dietary carbohydrates appears to play an important role in the metabolic fate of carbohydrates and, consequently, may significantly affect the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.
K L Morris; M B Zemel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition reviews     Volume:  57     ISSN:  0029-6643     ISO Abbreviation:  Nutr. Rev.     Publication Date:  1999 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-12-07     Completed Date:  1999-12-07     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376405     Medline TA:  Nutr Rev     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  273-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Glucose / metabolism*
Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced*
Dietary Carbohydrates / adverse effects,  classification,  metabolism*
Insulin / metabolism
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity / chemically induced*,  metabolism
Postprandial Period
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Blood Glucose; 0/Dietary Carbohydrates; 11061-68-0/Insulin
Comment In:
Nutr Rev. 1999 Sep;57(9 Pt 1):297   [PMID:  10568342 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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